Oceania Countries

Australia and Oceania Countries AZ

The world’s smallest continent, Australia and Oceania, comprises only 14 sovereign states. By far the largest and most populous country is Australia . Overall, only 0.5 percent of the world’s population lives in Australia and Oceania.

Country Area (km²) Residents Capital
Australia 7,682,300 20,010,000 Canberra
Fiji 18,374 881,000 Suva
Kiribati 811 103,000 Bairiki
Marshall Islands 181 59,000 Dalap-Uliga-Darrit
Micronesia Federation 702 108,000 Palikir
Nauru 21st 13,000 Yaren
New Zealand 270,686 4,050,000 Wellington
Palau 501 20,500 Koror
Papua New Guinea 462,840 5,550,000 Port Moresby
Solomon Islands 28,360 537,000 Honiara
Samoa 2,831 178,000 Apia
Tonga 750 112,000 Nuku’alofa
Tuvalu 26 11,500 Vaiaku
Vanuatu 12,190 206,000 Port Vila

Geography of Oceania

The Oceania is the continent of the world’s smallest (consisting of only 14 countries and in a way all are island) and together with America form the so – called “New World”, by the way is a continent that has some similarities with America as the presence of native peoples originating there (Indians in the Americas and aborigines in Oceania) and European colonization, whereas in Oceania the colonization was basically English. In this text we will see some aspects of the Geography of Oceania.

The continental territory of Oceania is reduced to the Australian territory, but due to its small extension to a continent, as well as being occupied by only one country, the continental part of Oceania is often seen as an island. In addition to mainland Australia, Oceania is made up of several islands, the largest of which is New Zealand which together with Papua New Guinea and Australia form the so-called Australasia. Other islands are called Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.

Environmental aspects

Currently, one of the major environmental problems that has affected Oceania, especially some small island countries like Tuvalu, has been the increase in the level of ocean waters, due to the melting of the polar ice caps.

Despite some controversies, the consensus of the international scientific community is that the main cause of the thaw is global warming, caused by the worsening of the greenhouse effect that originates from the hole in the ozone layer that has been increased by air pollution.

The effect of this increase in the level of the oceans is that some islands of Oceania are disappearing under water, forcing some countries like Tuvalu in order to make arrangements to transfer its citizens to other countries (such as Australia) when its territory completely submerge.

Oceania is basically flat, the Australian territory being mainly formed by a plateau and some plains. Because it is quite flat, at sea level, the increase in ocean waters makes it easier to submerge the lands of this continent.

This continent is also well remembered for its curious fauna with unique animals in the world such as the Kangaroo, the Tasmanian Devil, the Koala, among others. Its vegetation varies a lot, with forests further north, with semi-arid regions with shrub vegetation and also temperate areas further south.

Cultural aspects

Due to the predominant British colonization, naturally there is a predominance of the English language in Oceania, with its right based on British common law and the predominant religion being Christianity in its Protestant and Anglican aspects.

This does not mean that there is no Aboriginal culture that still resists on the continent, however small. Despite the long policies for the natives to assimilate the culture of the colonizer from an early age (in some cases, including children being taken from Aboriginal mothers to be raised on the mission island, in the care of the Church and the State). Even Prince William of the United Kingdom, together with his wife Kate Middleton, were received on the island of Tuvalu with traditional ceremonies from the island’s native people.

Economic aspects

Australia and New Zealand are the most prominent countries in the economy of Oceania, being also two developed countries and the largest world producers of sheep’s wool. In addition, they produce wines, coal, gas, oil, iron and precious minerals. Gold and oil are also present in Papua New Guinea. See more information about New Zealand on  Countryaah.com.

The production of coconut and its derivatives (such as coconut oil) is strongly present in other regions of Oceania. Tourism, on the other hand, has an important highlight, being an economic activity present throughout Oceania.

Economy and business in Palau

Palau’s economy is primarily characterized by growing tourism and self-sufficiency agriculture and fishing. Important agricultural products are coconuts, copra, cassava, Tapiola, bananas, bread fruit, citrus fruits and sweet potatoes. Pigs and chickens are the most important livestock. Fishing is very important. There is some fishing and clothing industry. Tuna and copra are the most important export products.

Tourism mainly focuses on barrier reefs and wrecks from World War II.

Economy and business in Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea is rich in natural resources. The country’s geography with impassable mountain ranges, rainforest and little developed infrastructure makes it costly to exploit these commercially, and licenses for mining and logging are mainly run by large multinational corporations.

Gross domestic product in 2017 was USD 21.089 billion, USD. The main export products are tropical timber, gold, copper, oil, palm oil and coffee. Large gas discoveries will make Papua New Guinea a significant producer of natural gas in the years to come.

85 percent of the population feed on agriculture, fishing and hunting, as well as small-scale production of commodities such as copra, coffee, cocoa beans and vanilla. In 2009, 38 percent lived below the poverty line.

Economy and business in Solomon Islands

Around half of the working population is employed wholly or partly in agriculture operated on small farms and plantations (2013). Among other things, it produces palm oil, copra, cocoa and rice, sweet potato, taro, yams and fruit. Cattle and pigs are the most important livestock. Heavy deforestation since the 1980s has reduced the forest area.

Offshore, fishing is conducted, among other things, for tuna.

The Solomon Islands have significant deposits of gold, nickel, zinc and lead. Mining employs 10.6 percent of the working population (2013).

The industry mainly comprises the processing of agricultural and fishery products, including canned and frozen fish.

The most important export products are fish, timber and palm oil. The main import products are food, machinery, oil products and transport equipment.

The service industries employ 39.4 percent of the unemployed.

Oceania Countries