Canada. Prime Minister Jean Chrétien reformed his government on January 25. Two of the new ministers, Pierre Pettigrew and Stéphane Dion, were prominent opponents of Quebec’s resignation from the state federation. The prime minister also increased representation in the government of the increasingly influential state of British Columbia. Most items were exchanged and several seniors left the government, including Foreign Minister André Oullet, replaced by Lloyd Axworthy. In Quebec, at the same time, the newly elected leader of the Nationalist Party Parti Québécois (PQ), Lucien Bouchard, took over as prime minister. Canada’s Deputy Prime Minister Sheila Copps resigned on May 1 in protest of the government’s failure to abolish its electoral promise to abolish the unpopular VAT on goods and services. During the 1993 election campaign, she had promised to resign if it was not abolished and was now subject to public pressure. However, Sheila Copps was re-elected to Parliament at a June 17 general election, whereupon Jean Chrétien immediately re-elected her as Deputy Prime Minister. The Liberal Party government had a number of successes in this year’s election elections in Quebec, Ontario and Newfoundland. Finance Minister Paul Martin implemented the strategy to reduce foreign borrowing in the budget he presented on March 6. The state government in Ontario faced widespread protests against its budget cuts, equivalent to close to SEK 40 billion. In the capital Toronto, local traffic was stopped, companies were forced to shut down and a group of protesters tried to storm the stock exchange during the trade union protest day announced October 25.
- ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG: What does CA stand for? In the field of geography, this two letter acronym means Canada. Check this to see its other meanings in English and other 35 languages.
English legislation has for a long time been determining the relationship between the sexes in North America. It was not until October 1929 that Canadian women gained independent legal status. It was only in the constitution of 1982 that gender equality was legally established. Each province also has laws that guarantee equal rights to housing, work, services, etc. regardless of race, religion, age, nationality or gender. Only in Quebec is discrimination against “reverse sexuality” – the term “homosexuality” – prohibited. Yet women are subject to widespread discrimination. They do not have access to all types of jobs and if they have, they do not receive the same pay as men. The proportion of women working outside the home increased by 62% in the period 1969-79. In 1981, this share reached 49% of all women and made up 39% of the economically active population.
1980 From Trudeau to Mulroney
A Liberal government led by Pierre Trudeau came to power in the 1968 elections and it was re-elected in 1972 and 76. In 1980 it was replaced by a Conservative government. Trudeau strengthened Canada’s traditional ties with the US and Western Europe, he approached the country to the Far East, Africa and Latin America, and he refused to join the US blockade against Cuba.
The difficulties that developed in the wake of the international recession of the early 1970’s led to a sharp decline in support for the Liberal Party, and a corresponding increase in support for the Conservatives. In 1983, Conservative leader Brian Mulroney replaced Prime Minister John Turner, who had replaced Trudeau three years earlier. Mulroney was a labor lawyer, self-employed and based in Quebec. He re-established the special relationships that had previously existed between Canada and the United States, which was especially reflected in the negotiations that began in 1985 on a free trade agreement. The treaty, which came into force in 1989, was criticized by the liberal and other sectors of the opposition, who perceived it as too favorable for the neighboring country.
The Conservative electoral victory was especially secured with votes from Quebec. The backing reflected the growing strength of the French-speaking business people as well as the Lake Meech agreement of 87, which Mulroney had promoted and delegated a number of important powers of power from the federal government to the provinces. It meant, for the first time, a recognition of Quebec’s cultural characteristics. But in order for the Lake Meech Agreement to come into force, it had to be approved by all provinces and it was blocked by Newfoundland and Manitoba. In the latter, the opposition came solely from a native who could not accept the wording of declaring Quebec as “a different society.”
1990 Inuit demands for Nunavut – Our Land
The Northwest Territories make up a third of Canada’s surface, but only 52,000 people live, half of whom are Inuit or belong to other indigenous peoples. They considered the opportunity to stand out in two regions – Nunavut and Denendeh – each with their autonomous government. The plan was approved by the provincial government in 1987, but it still relied on federal government approval and a referendum.
In addition to the agreement between the provincial governments and the indigenous peoples’ organizations and inuites, the federal government declared itself willing to include a clause in the constitution on the latter’s right to self-government. In 1988, the government transferred 673,000 km2 to the indigenous peoples and the Inuit in the Northwest Territories, and it was expected that 352,000 km2 would follow.
In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed an agreement on 17,500 native land claims in the Northwest Territories. The road was open to the creation of «Nunavut» – Our Land in Inuit. This project was approved by a referendum on April 4. Nunavut north of Hudson Bay and the Arctic Peninsula covers an area of 2.2 million km 2, corresponding to one fifth of the land. The agreement also provided for the transfer of 350,000 km2 to the Inuit and a payment of $ 580 million to replace the promise that the Inuit would not make any further territorial claims. Nunavut did not gain autonomy, but a provision on the participation of the population in the extraction of natural resources was enshrined in the constitution.
The Inuit in northwestern Canada work with their sisters and brothers in Greenland and Alaska to address their nation’s ecological, cultural, social and political problems. The Fifth Inuit Conference – CCI – in 1989 reaffirmed their right to areas considered by the Canadian state for its property and for which it had transferred mining exploration rights to a number of large companies.
According to Countryaah.com, the population of Canada in 1996 was 29,164,041, ranking number 33 in the world. The population growth rate was 1.150% yearly, and the population density was 3.2071 people per km2.