The forest boundary in northern Canada runs in an arc from central Labrador below the Ungava Peninsula to the eastern shore of Hudson Bay. It continues along its coast further northwest to Great Bear Lake and the mouth of the Mackenzie River and discontinuously into Alaska. Further north lies an area called the Barven Grounds, where the ground is mostly permafrost, thawing to a depth of a few centimeters in the summer, interspersed with sparse tundra formations. The northern part of the tundra, which makes up about 1/10 of the arctic deserts, is covered with mosses and lichens. Dwarf trees, shrubs, the hardiest grasses and sedges grow in the more southerly area.
Beneath the forest-tundra belt, but still in the northern half of the country, lies one of the largest belts of coniferous forests in the world, stretching from Alaska to Newfoundland.
In southeastern Canada, from the Great Lakes region to the Atlantic coast, mixed forests of maple, beech, fir, and Canadian tsuga extend. However, in the lowlands in the south of the country, only deciduous forests are found; American walnut, oak and elm thrive here, but also chestnut, maple and common walnut. Spruce trees are most common in the eastern mountains. Douglas firs and pines, aspens and yellow pines also grow on the plateaus. Along the coast of the Pacific Ocean stretches one of the most impressive forest complexes in the world, with dense stands of Douglas fir, western red cedar and Canadian tsuga.
The prairie region in the south of the country is too dry, forests have never thrived there. There are mostly grass communities here. Today, however, little remains of the original character of the landscape, the fertile black earth has been plowed and huge fields of grain are undulating everywhere.
According to A2ZCAMERABLOG, whales, walruses and seals live in the waters of the cold icy ocean. Arctic animals include polar bears, which spend their lives both in water and on land. Arctic reindeer, musk deer, wolves, arctic foxes and lemmings live in the tundra. Many migratory birds spend the summer there, among which are mainly auks, sea ducks, gulls, common terns and plovers. Arctic reindeer, moose, wolverines, raccoons, black and brown bears thrive in the northern forests. Hunting of beaver, marten, muskrat, mink and other fur animals in the area once formed the basis of a thriving fur trade. Today, most of these animals are bred on specialized farms.
Further in the south of Canada, the white-tailed deer is widespread, in more populated areas there are mainly smaller mammals – gray and rusty squirrels, fallow deer, weasels and otters. Typical representatives of the birds are the red cardinal, the wood warbler, the Baltimore oriole and the North American thrush. Smaller animals such as the North American species of hares, groundhogs, and grouse thrive on the prairies, while bison and pronghorn (antlope-like ruminants) survive. Such species of game as fat-footed sheep, mountain goat, marmot and their natural predator, puma, have adapted well to the conditions of life in the western mountains.
As one of the former British colonies, Canada has built its democratic government system on the model of Great Britain, but at the same time it has retained certain elements that refer to its French heritage. It is a country that is increasingly trying to fulfill its obligations towards the indigenous Indians and Eskimos. The creation of their autonomous territory is being prepared. The population that has migrated to Canada over the centuries is very ethnically diverse.
Canada is a federation of states created in 1867 by the British North America Act. As a constitutional monarchy within the British Commonwealth, it is formally headed by the British Queen. The monarch’s powers are exercised by the Governor-General, who is usually appointed for a six-year term on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. The Governor-General represents the Queen when signing laws. In order for the law to be approved, it must pass through both chambers of the federal parliament: the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Both chambers can introduce new laws, but only the Chamber of Deputies can introduce a tax or spending bill. The Federal Parliament is authorized to discuss all questions of foreign policy as well as important internal matters.
Each of Canada’s ten provinces has an administrative structure that mirrors that of the entire country. The Lieutenant-Governor, who is appointed by the Governor-General, convenes the unicameral Legislative Assembly, the leader of the parliamentary majority becomes the Prime Minister, whom he appoints. Provincial governments are responsible for the administration of the province and land ownership, the sphere of civil law and local taxes. These governments also take responsibility for local trade, health and social care, and education. The vast but sparsely populated Yukon and Northwest Territories are administered directly by the federal government.
The largest ethnic group is Canadians of British descent, who make up more than a third of the population. Canadians of French descent make up about a quarter of the country’s population, but more than 80% of the population of the province of Quebec. A similar proportion falls on the population of mixed origin, among which the so-called Métis constitute a significant group. The rest are descendants of immigrants from Europe, mainly from Germany, Italy, Ukraine and Holland. The original inhabitants of Canada – Indians and Eskimos (Inuit) – today represent only 1.5% of the Canadian population.
About three-quarters of Canadians use English as their first language. In Francophone Quebec, the French language and culture are protected and promoted by law. Among dominant Christians, the proportion of Roman Catholics slightly exceeds the proportion of Protestants. In recent decades, due to the large influx of immigrants from Asia, the mosaic of religions has become much more varied.
Canada is a country rich in natural resources. It has vast mineral wealth, extensive forest stands suitable for logging and large tracts of agricultural land. By using this potential, Canada has become one of the most developed countries in the world, even though the standard of living of the population is among the highest in the world.