Czech Republic. In June, the country held its first
general elections since the Czech Republic and Slovakia went
separate routes in 1992–93. The election was a
disappointment for Prime Minister Václav Klaus and his party
Občanskaokratická strana (Democratic National Party).
Nevertheless, Klaus, with President Havel as mediator,
managed to form a center-right minority government with 99
of the 200 seats in the People's Assembly.
In November, the Czech people voted again. According to
Countryaah.com, this time to
appoint representatives to the newly created Senate with its
After two years of negotiations, the Czech Republic and
Germany agreed on a joint declaration, in which Germany
apologized for the occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1939 and
the subsequent terror, while the Czech Republic in turn
apologized for the Sudanese minority being thrown out of the
country during the first post-war years.
Little is known about where the first peoples of the
central Danube area came from, beyond the traces of the Boi,
a Celtic tribe that gave Bohemia its Latin name. The Celts
were easily displaced by the Germans and then by the slaves
in the 6th century as the Germans continued to the south.
The forests and mountains protected the inhabitants, but
the lowlands that extended north of the Danube were invaded
several times by the Avars. The slaves resisted the
pressure because they had leaders like the Frankish merchant
Samo who were able to unite the tribes. Bohemia experienced
relatively quiet times in the 8th century after Karl the
Great defeated the Avars.
At the beginning of the 9th century, three political
centers of power were counted: the Nitras Plain, the valleys
of Lower Moravia and central Bohemia. The slaves from
Bohemia, the so-called Czechs, gained control of most of the
area. The first Czech prince was Mojmir the 1st, who
extended his domain to Nitra. His successor, Rostislav the
1st, institutionalized the state and consolidated relations
with the East Frankish kingdom as a means of preserving
The Franks sent the first missionaries to Nitra and
Bohemia, but Rostislav did not accept the use of Latin and
requested Slavic preachers. The monks Constantine and
Methodio arrived in the year 863 at the head of a group of
Greek priests who drew up the first Slavic alphabet and
translated the sacred texts.
Metodio received great recognition from Rome for his
efforts in Moravia and in Panonia, forming a clerical
province with close links to the Archbishop of Sirmium.
Because of his success, the Frankish religious hierarchy
considered Methodo an enemy and he was taken prisoner and
imprisoned until the year 873, where he could return to the
Rostislav founded Greater Moravia by being the first to
unite all Slavic regions under one. Slovakia, which borders
the northern Carpathian Mountains and Morova, joined the
The religious competition between Latin and Slavic stayed
up through the expansive period of Bohemia. On Methody's
death in 885, his old enemy, the Frankish Bishop Wiching,
strengthened his position in Moravia. Wiching expelled
Methodio's followers and obtained that the new pope forbade
the organization of fairs in Slavic.
A year later the Czech expansion led to conflict with the
Germanic kingdom. King Arnulfo sent an army to the Moravia
in 892 and he later joined the Magyars to defeat the
principality. During the period 905-908 the Moravian ravaged
repeated invasions until Mojmir entered into an agreement
The increasing strength of the Germans, combined with the
"resurrection" of the Roman papacy, meant that Bohemia lost
much of its territory. With Bfetislav the 1st deployment in
1034, he managed to recapture part of the Moravia and Poland
was invaded in 1039, but the Germanic King Henry III, forced
him to retire, but the Hungarian crown retained Slovakia.
In order to maintain its independence, Bohemia was forced
to actively participate in the Vatican campaign. In this way
the Bohemian princes succeeded in being proclaimed kings by