Denmark. Denmark’s relations with the EU were a hot topic in 1996. When discussing a possible accession to EMU, Denmark’s right to be excluded if the country so chooses. A legal examination of whether the country’s accession to the Maastricht Treaty and the EU contravenes the Constitution was also initiated following a notification by Danish EU opponents. The trial in the Supreme Court could take several years and affect the negotiations on the EU’s continued work initiated by the IGC in the autumn. In anticipation of a verdict, Denmark had difficulty ratifying already signed agreements, especially those that could be interpreted to give increased power to the EU and diminished power to the countries themselves, which complicated the work in the EU. As the EU treaty began to be renegotiated, the debate on a new referendum on EU membership flared up again.
During the autumn, the so-called Rushdi business was also developed, caused by the government’s decision not to grant Iranian author Salman Rushdie entry permit when he was to receive a European Literature Prize in Copenhagen. The reason was that they were not considered to be able to guarantee his safety. After a storm, both domestically and abroad, the government was forced to change. The deal had consequences in the parliament, where the two left parties Socialist People’s Party and the Unity List saved the government from a distrust vote.
- ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG: What does DK stand for? In the field of geography, this two letter acronym means Denmark. Check this to see its other meanings in English and other 35 languages.
The days before Christmas, the Center Democrats left the government coalition. Prime Minister Nyrup Rasmussen presented a new government on December 30, consisting of six representatives from Radical Venstre and 15 from the Social Democracy.
Economically, 1996 was a good year for Denmark. Continued growth, combined with falling unemployment figures, helped the government to present a balanced budget for the first time in a long time.
This political situation continued throughout the 1950’s, with the period 1948-53 being the worst years during the heat of the Cold War. During this period there was an unprecedented strong military buildup – partly based on US economic aid – and an almost unconditional endorsement of the renewed imperialist world system. For example, in NATO NATO Denmark supported France’s war in Algeria and Indochina, and endorsed non-democratic regimes such as Portugal, Greece and Turkey as members of the alliance. West Germany’s NATO membership and armaments became a fundamental conflict theme in the Danish population, but here too the government bowed to the political “necessity”.
In the following years, through NATO’s single command, and later through economic cooperation culminating with EC membership in 1972, Denmark became increasingly closely linked with West Germany and this country’s politics. At the same time, the country was becoming increasingly woven into US politics. A development initiated with the Marshall Aid and NATO membership.
Classical and economic conditions changed only slowly during this period. Danish society was still predominantly a capitalist agricultural society with an industrial domestic market. Currency for import of raw materials, grain and feed, had to be brought home through agricultural exports as before the war. It provided constant balance of payments and currency problems, and set tight limits on the Social Democracy program, « Future of Denmark’, From 1945, which focused on state intervention to promote stronger industrial development. However, productivity increased both in industry and agriculture – especially in the period 1945-50 – and economic rationalization was implemented in many places. The reformist labor movement supported the rationalization efforts. This was reflected in small salary requirements, trade union courses and study trips to the United States to learn about the new collaborative ideology in the workplace.
In a few years, so-called productivity-enhancing wage systems also gained ground, and in 1947 a working committee was set up in the industry, where workers’ representatives were also seated. However, these committees only received advisory status and were of little importance.
The goal of the new class collaboration was rationalization and concentration, so that the Danish industry could become internationally competitive. The reformist labor movement justified this policy by arguing that increasing productivity should be followed by higher wages and shorter working hours. The link between productivity and the wage increase was thus the carrot that had to keep the workers going at an accelerated pace, and this also succeeded to a certain extent, even though productivity increased stronger than wages. However, as a whole, politics did not succeed until the late 1950’s due to monetary and internal structural factors.
Throughout most of the 1950’s, the unemployment rate was 9-10% among unemployed insureds, and at the same time there were large labor resources in the country and among women.
The system of import and export regulation, which the Social Democracy considered a crunch to improve public control of the economy, was gradually phased out during the bourgeois offensive in the 1950’s and in line with the increasing liberalization – which should free up European trade and secure Western Europe as a capitalist area in alliance with the United States. Fiscal and monetary policy became the most widely used policy instruments and the consequence was rising interest rates and stagnation in investments.
History of Copenhagen after the Reformation
In the second half of the 16th century, Copenhagen experienced significant economic progress, which was related to the increased trade, especially with Dutch ships on the Baltic Sea. As the Crown’s governor, Christoffer Valkendorf made a great effort for the city’s development.
This period of economic prosperity continued into the first decades of Christian IV’s reign. He took the personal initiative for the magnificent arsenal facility south of the castle consisting of Tøjhuset and Proviantgården. 1615-20, Slotsholmen was extended towards Amagersiden, where the Stock Exchange was built with a canal between this and the castle.
Even more large-scale was the construction of a completely new district, Christianshavn, which in the years after 1618 was built according to a drawing by Johan Semp according to Dutch principles with canals and bastions. The plan was for it to become a thriving trading town with large merchant farms with direct access to the canals, but it all went very slowly as the economic conditions around 1620 began to turn.
It was Christian IV’s intention to make Copenhagen the economic center of the Baltic Sea, and he also sought to increase the production of finished goods so that the country would not just be an exporter of raw materials. As a detail in this ambitious, mercantilist policy, in 1605 the Disciplinary and Children’s House was arranged in the old Holy Spirit monastery, where criminals and since then especially incarcerated children were to learn a number of crafts, just as a silk production was started a little later. At the same time, the king took the initiative to establish a number of trading companies, of which, however, only the East India and Icelandic Company became a more permanent success.
Just outside the city ramparts, the king built a small “gazebo”, Rosenborg, in 1606, in a beautifully landscaped park, Kongens Have. The castle was later expanded and it became Christian IV’s favorite residence.
Despite the king’s unfortunate involvement in the Thirty Years’ War and the subsequent financial difficulties, he already in 1630 drafted a large-scale plan to expand Copenhagen towards the NE all the way to Skt. Annæ Skanse, which was built where later Kastellet was to be located. The new city was to take the form of a star with radial streets radiating from a central square. The financially difficult times, however, meant that the plan was not realized, but in the following decades work was done on the new Østervold, which was to connect the old town with Skt. Annæ Skanse with completely modern bastions that could withstand shelling from heavy artillery. The only major construction in the new city that Christian IV completed was the terraced settlement Nyboder, which from 1631 was built as a residence for the people and officers of the navy and naval shipyard.
Within the old rampart, the Round Tower and Trinity Church were built. Work began in 1637, the tower was completed as early as 1642, but the church was not consecrated until 1656 as a student church.
The Siege 1658-60
Despite the fact that a lot of money had been spent on the Copenhagen Fortress, ramparts and tombs were not in finished condition when a large Swedish army under Charles X. Gustav from Valby Bakke looked over the city 10.8.1658. A major attack at this time would undoubtedly have brought down the city, but the Swedes spent a month procuring heavy artillery from Kronborg in front of the city and launching a systematic bombardment. This time was used by the defenders to remedy the worst shortcomings of the ramparts, and a Dutch auxiliary fleet, after defeating the Swedes in the Sound on 29 October, brought large supplies to the city as well as 2,200 well-equipped infantrymen. The storm in Copenhagen on the night between 10 and 11 February 1659 was very close to success for the Swedes, as a few came up on the rampart between Gyldenløves Bastion and Bryghuset. However, they were repulsed with very large losses. It was not until the peace in Copenhagen on 27 May 1660 that the siege was lifted.
During the war, the citizens had realized that Copenhagen was given new privileges. The four mayors and eight councilors (the magistrate) were now supplemented by a popularly elected citizen representation of 32 men, who were to negotiate with the magistrate about the city’s conditions. During the war, the citizens of Copenhagen had lent the king, Frederik III, a lot of money by buying ships, cannons and equipment for the crown, which it could not immediately pay for. Frederik III therefore sought to buy the citizens’ loyalty by ensuring them economic and political equality with the nobility, with the right to buy “freely”, ie. noble estate, equal right to offices, etc.
At the estate meeting in September-October 1660, Frederik III was first declared hereditary king and then dictator. Thus, Copenhagen’s political privileges became quite illusory, as only the right to buy land remained.
After the dictatorship
After 1660/61, Copenhagen became seriously the capital of Denmark and Norway, as all the new state institutions as well as the navy and a large part of the army were located in Copenhagen. The town’s defenses were reinforced at the completion in 1664 by Kastellet, which became the residence of 2,000 soldiers with wives and children. Furthermore, in 1685-92, the large bastion row Nyværk was built, which went NE of Christianshavn to the mouth of the harbor just outside Kastellet.
The city also experienced great tragedies during these decades. From July 1711 to June 1712, the worst plague in the city’s history raged, and at least 22,000 of the city’s approx. 60,000 inhabitants died. The worst losses after the plague had just been recovered when another disaster hit the hard-hit city. 20.10.1728 some children played with candles in Skt. Clemensstræde close to Vesterport. A strong westerly wind caused the 2/3 of the city burned over the next two days.
According to Countryaah.com, the population of Denmark in 1996 was 5,232,593, ranking number 102 in the world. The population growth rate was 0.350% yearly, and the population density was 123.3256 people per km2.