Yearbook 1996

China. China continued his economic progress, but did not become a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1996. Prime Minister Li Peng said at the National People’s Congress in March that the fight against inflation is now most important and that GDP should increase no more than 8% annually over the next five years – up from 10-12% in the previous decade. However, fundamental problems such as widening wealth gaps between cities and countryside, coastal provinces and inland and the favored and disadvantaged of the market reforms remained, however.

Outwardly, the country marked its superpower position in several ways. Prior to the March presidential election in Taiwan, for China just a breakaway province, Chinese military began extensive naval and robotic exercises near the island. The force display, a reminder that Taiwanese independence is excluded, caused great concern in the region and prompted the United States to alert large fleet units to the area. Four months later, on July 29, China blasted a nuclear charge just before the Geneva Prohibition on Prohibition of Such Testing (CTBT) was resumed. Several countries complained, but China said this 45th nuclear test was the last before the voluntary halt that the country would now observe (a test had also been conducted on June 8).

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Relations with the United States commuted between frost and thaw. After the Taiwan crisis, the two major powers in June were close to a trade war. The United States threatened with sanctions if the Beijing government did not stop piracy of foreign films, records, computer programs, etc., and China announced tangible countermeasures. However, the parties agreed on June 17, and the battle was blown off. At the APEC Summit in Manila in November, then-presidents Bill Clinton and Jiang Zemin agreed to exchange state visits within two years.

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Earlier in the spring, the China and Russian Federation had strengthened their relations during a visit to Beijing by President Boris Yeltsin and, among other things, promised to establish a “hot line” Moscow-Beijing.

The outside world again protested against China’s disregard for UN human rights. Amnesty International feared the death penalty following summary “trials” would mean that this year’s executions would be far more than the nearly 2,200 executed in 1995. The sentence of eleven years in prison against 27-year-old Democratic campaigner Wang Dan October 30 – just before Prime Minister Göran Persson’s Kinaresa – was widely criticized and increased in Hong Kong unrest before China’s takeover of power in 1997. Other attacks against the opposition and the numerous executions of criminals were seen as a result of the campaigns launched by the regime against corruption and crime, as well as moral aggravation and “a spiritual society. “.

1921 The Communist Party of China is formed

«4th the May Movement ‘had first and foremost shown the anti-imperialist and revolutionary attitude of the modern intellectual elite. The Communist Party originated from this movement. It had been formed when 13 people from different parts of China met in 1921 in a small house in the French sector of Shanghai to conduct the first congress of the Communist Party of China (CCP).

The party quickly received support from Chinese who returned from Europe and were inspired by the communist ideas. This included Chou En-lai and Li Li-san, who returned from France and Chu Te from Germany. The new industrial working class had also shown increased willingness to fight. In the period 1918-1926 alone there were over 1000 strikes. The peasants were again set in motion. The Russian Revolution was also a mighty impetus. The new Soviet regime had declared that it was renouncing the special rights that Zarist Russia had squeezed out of ancient China. It was therefore natural that China sought closer cooperation with the Soviet Union.

Initially, however, the CCP was weak and was almost exclusively an intellectual party. In 1923, the party had just 300 members. The same year, an agreement was signed between Kuomintang and the CCP on cooperation. The Communist Party was to continue, but the Communists could enter Kuomintang as individual members. At this time, intimate cooperation between Kuomintang and the Soviet Union had also begun. Communist International’s strategy was that the bourgeois revolution had to be implemented first under Kuomintang’s leadership. The Socialist Revolution should come next.

This line triggered opposition among the communist leaders. One wing wanted Kuomintang to carry out the bourgeois revolution alone. Another wing believed that only the proletariat was capable of carrying out a revolutionary action. The Communist Party was now becoming a mass party. It prioritized organizing in the emerging working class and had significant success. In 1926, the Communists had influence in 700 unions, representing 1.2 million workers. In 1927, the CCP had 60,000 members and the union had 3 million members. At the same time, the peasant uprisings against the landlords increased in strength and strike waves rolled across the country.

This development caused unrest in the conservative part of Kuomintang. The CCP’s central leadership therefore sought to curb the revolutionary movement, which Mao disagreed. But the cautious attitude didn’t help. In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek fought against the communists in Shanghai. 40,000 were killed. The Communist Party responded to this challenge with a revolt in Nanchang on August 1, 1927, later in Canton and with peasant revolts in several central provinces. The break with Kuomintang was now final.

The Communist Party was now entering its most difficult period. It was struggling to survive. The communists were displaced from the cities and had to concentrate on the villages. A number of Soviet republics were created there. The first and most important in 1931 in Kiangsi, with Mao and Chu Te in the lead. It was at this time that Mao’s strategy for basing the revolution on the peasant population emerged.

The Communist theory from Marx to Lenin had built on the industrial workers as the revolutionary force. Most Chinese communists had also been in favor of this theory, but the cities of China where the industry was located were now under Chiang’s control. Mao was aware of the revolutionary opportunity in the Chinese peasant masses. The peasant revolts in the 19th century had been revolutionary and anti-Confucian. They sought equality, advocated the emancipation of women, and a total upheaval of society. Mao had also done extensive studies himself in the peasant population. In the Chinese Soviet republics, the communists were given the opportunity to experiment with land reform, thus securing the support of the poor and medium-sized peasants.

Population 1996

According to, the population of China in 1996 was 1,240,920,424, ranking number 1 in the world. The population growth rate was 1.060% yearly, and the population density was 132.1786 people per km2.

China Population Distribution by Age