Moldova. In March, President Mircea Snegur dismissed
Defense Minister Pavel Creangă, who he accused of inability
to fight theft of military equipment, and allowed him to be
arrested. A month later, however, the Minister of Defense
re-entered office, after a constitutional court declared the
In May, the International Monetary Fund approved a $ 195
million credit to the country.
Countryaah.com, Petru Lucinschi clearly won over incumbent President
Mircea Snegur in the presidential election at the end of the
year. The new president was expected to forge stronger ties
With the Jassi Treaty of Peace of 1791, the left bank of
the Dniester - south of the Yagorlik River - was transferred
to Russia. At that time, the area did not belong to Moldova
what it does today. During the second division of Poland
(1793) between Russia, Prussia and Austria, Russia gained
another part of the left bank of the Dniester. Following the
Russo-Turkish War (1806-12) and Bucharest Peace, Russia
occupied the area between the Prut and Dniester rivers (Besarabia).
Previously, only the southern part of this territory had the
designation Besarabia. The area was initially granted
autonomous status within Russia, and Kisin'ov became its
capital. In 1873, Besarabia was made a Russian province,
where all the laws of the Russian Empire were applicable.
Throughout the 19th century, the population of Besarabia
grew from 250,000 to 2.5 million. By the end of the century,
the Moldavians constituted half of this population.
Furthermore, there were significant minorities of Ukrainians
and Russians, as well as Bulgarians, Germans, Jews and
Muslims. The capital of Kisin'ov grew from 7,000 residents
in 1812 to 109,000 in 1897. During the Russo-Turkish wars of
1828-29, 1877-78 and during the Crimean war of 1853-56 where
Russia faced Britain, Turkey and France, Besarabia was
hinterland for the Russian army. With the Paris Peace Treaty
of 1856, part of southern Besarabia near the Danube and the
Black Sea was placed under the Principality of Moldova,
which in 1859 joined with Valakia and formed the State of
Romania. With the Berlin Treaty of 1878, this area was again
assigned to Russia.
From the 1840s the Moldavian schools were closed and from
1866 no longer taught in Moldavian. It was only resumed
after the Russian revolution in 1905. On December 2, 1917,
the People's Republic of Moldova was proclaimed, and
Romanian troops immediately moved into Besarabia, where they
defeated the local Soviet power. However, from December 1917
to January 1918, the Soviet power was re-established. In
December, Besarabia was incorporated into Romania and in
late January the Republic of Moldova was proclaimed.
In the 1920s and 30s, present-day Moldova was divided
into two areas of different sizes. Besarabia was part of the
Romanian kingdom, and the left bank of the Dniéster belonged
to the Soviet Union. On October 12, 1924, the Moldovan
Autonomous Republic of Ukraine was established. Its first
capital was Balta and from 1929 Tiraspol. In Moldova,
considerable progress was made in industrialization and
culture, while as part of Romania, Besarabia was still
On June 28, 1940, the Soviet Union gave Romania an
ultimatum and Besarabia was again incorporated into the
Soviet Union. On August 2, within the framework of the
Union, the Federative Republic of Moldova was established as
a result of the unification of the central part of Besarabia
and the Autonomous Moldova. The northern part of Besarabia
together with the eastern part of the autonomous republic
remained in Ukraine. In June 1941, the Nazi troops invaded
the Soviet Union, Romania entered into an alliance with
Hitler and conquered all of Besarabia until Dniéster and
Odessa. After three years of war of exhaustion, the Red Army
recaptured Besarabia and northern Bukovina.
Leonid Brezhnev began his political career in Moldova.
First as leader of the local Communist Party and later to
become Secretary General of the Union Communist Party and
President until his death in 1983.