Gustavian times (1772–1809)
Fredrik I and Adolf Fredrik had accepted their roles as constitutional monarchs, but the latter’s intention Lovisa Ulrika worked to expand the kingdom. Her son, Gustav III, in 1772 the period of freedom ended through a coup, which severely curtailed the power of the parliament and increased the king’s (1772 form of government). The king appeared to claim to be opposed to party and state oppositions – the parties as well as the names themselves hats and caps were banned – but in fact supported the nobility and followed the economical, liberal policies of the younger caps in the economy. Thus, restrictions on grain trade were eased, and foreign religious acquaintances were allowed to settle in the country in an attempt to attract foreign knowledge and capital. Cultural life was favored by Gustav, among others. with the Swedish Academy (1786) and through efforts for theater and architecture. But the political opposition sat tight; In 1774 the freedom of the press was restricted.
- ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG: What does SE stand for? In the field of geography, this two letter acronym means Sweden. Check this to see its other meanings in English and other 35 languages.
In 1788 Gustav threw the country into war with Russia (peace 1790 without border changes; see Russian-Swedish war). The dissatisfaction with the war led to a mutiny, the Anjali League, among noble officers at the front, which, however, played the king’s patriotic propaganda in his hands and increased his popular support. In 1789 he implemented the Association and Security Act with the support of the unruly courts. This meant that the national council was abolished and the king came closer to the total monarchy. The social development that the coup in 1772 was intended to stop now had political impact instead. The taxpayers’ ownership of their land was established, as were the right of the peasants to buy their farms, and the nobility’s privileges on office and salvation land were cut.
A noble conspiracy led to Gustav III being murdered by JJ Anckarström in 1792. Under the son Gustav Adolf’s authority, Duke Karl and his adviser GA Reuterholm led an authoritarian regime. In 1796, Gustav IV Adolf became an official, confirmed the Association and Security Act and continued his father’s monarchical board. He strongly distanced himself from the ideas of the French Revolution and joined foreign policy in the anti-French camp. This was also the case for trade policy reasons, and Sweden entered the war against Napoleon France in 1805. Swedish Pomerania was lost, and in 1808 Sweden was attacked by Russia, currently allied with France. Russian troops soon occupied all of Finland and the Norrland coast to Umeå (see Finnish War). In peace in Fredrikshamn in 1809, all land east of the Gulf of Bothnia and the Torne River and Åland were abandoned. The dissatisfaction with Gustav IV Adolf’s war policy had previously led to a military coup, and the king was forced to abdicate in March 1809.
New state of affairs
After the coup d’etat in March 1809, a parliament was convened which decided to exclude Gustav IV Adolf and his heirs from the succession. Instead, his uncle, Duke Charles, was elected king under the name of Karl XIII(1809-18), however, only since the Duke approved a form of government decided by the states, whose basic idea was the pursuit of a balance of power between royal power and parliament. The 1809 form of government drew inspiration from the ideas of state law of the time – most notably Montesquieu’s distinction between executive, legislative and judicial power – but also built on the positive and negative experiences of Sweden’s own history. The executive power was entrusted to the king, who would be obliged to listen to the minister responsible for parliament. However, he was not bound by their advice; In other words, the government’s responsibility was legal, not political. There was no talk of parliamentarism. Legislative power was equally divided between King and Parliament. The tax authority reserved the stands, which also controlled the Riksbank and the National Debt Office. The judicial power would be exercised by indecent judges. At the same time, a number of civil liberties and rights were enacted: security against arbitrary arrest, freedom of expression and expression, and an even more limited freedom of religion. All special censorship was abolished by a special freedom of print regulation. Despite demands for a more democratic representation of the people, the parliamentary day was maintained in the 1810’s parliamentary order. The 1809 revolution thus did not result in any major democratic upheaval. The aristocratic-bureaucratic leadership layer held its positions both against the king and the parliament. The constitution, however, constituted an elastic framework that opened up new opportunities for further constitutional development. freedom of expression and expression as well as an even more limited freedom of religion. All special censorship was abolished by a special freedom of print regulation. Despite demands for a more democratic representation of the people, the parliamentary day was maintained in the 1810’s parliamentary order.
Throne of choice and foreign policy system change
Then Karl XIIIwas old and without legitimate heirs, a successor must also be appointed. The election fell on the Norwegian commander, Prince Kristian August; it was hoped in this way to be able to persuade the Norwegians to voluntarily join Sweden. However, the prince, as a Swedish successor called Karl August, died a few months after his arrival in Sweden at a military exercise at Kvidinge Hed in Skåne (May 1810). A new throne election took place in August 1810 at a parliament in Örebro under the impression of the stirring Fersenska murder, which seemed to show that Sweden needed a strong man who could maintain the internal order and raise the country’s international reputation. One such was offered in the French marshal Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, whose candidacy was mediated by Lieutenant Carl Otto Mörner and supported by Foreign Minister Lars von Engeström. After Bernadotte was elected crown prince, he arrived in Sweden in the fall of 1810, adopted the name Karl Johan and became the country’s real regent from the first moment. The supporters of the “French” party who enforced his election in hopes of thereby getting Napoleon’s help to recapture Finland made him disappointed by instead implementing a foreign policy system change, whose core was consensus with Russia. Karl Johan and Tsar Alexander I agreed at a meeting in Turku in 1812 that Sweden would forever depreciate Finland against receiving Russian support for the acquisition of Norway. Sweden then participated under Karl Johan’s leadership in the final match against Napoleon. After the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Crown Prince turned to Denmark, which in Kielfreden (January 1814) was forced to relinquish Norway to Sweden in exchange for Svenska Pommern. However, the Norwegians did not find themselves in this settlement over their heads, but in Eidsvoll on 17 May 1814, the Danish prince Kristian Fredrik elected king in an independent Norway and adopted his own constitution. However, after a short campaign, Karl Johan forced them into the union with Sweden through the Moss Convention (see Swedish-Norwegian Union). “1812 years of politics” meant that Sweden turned its back on its Baltic past in order to orient itself towards the south and west instead. The aspirations of power politics were screwed down, and financial interests were given priority.
According to Countryaah.com, the population of Sweden in 1996 was 8,836,309, ranking number 81 in the world. The population growth rate was 0.620% yearly, and the population density was 21.5344 people per km2.