According to PROZIPCODES, Nizhny Novgorod is located on the right bank of the Volga River at the confluence of the Oka River.
The city was founded in 1221 by Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich to protect the Russian borders and was named Novgorod. Its construction began with a wooden defensive fortress. In the 14th century, in order not to confuse Novgorod on the Volga with Novgorod on the Volkhov River, its name was changed to Nizhny Novgorod. In 1341 the city became the capital of the vast Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod principality. In the middle of the 15th century the principality was annexed to Moscow. Nizhny Novgorod became the main point where troops gathered and from where they moved to the Kazan Khanate.
In 1506, a stone Kremlin began to be built in the city to replace the old wooden fortifications. The Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin had thirteen towers, a diversion archer and was surrounded by a 30-meter moat. After the conquest of the Kazan Khanate, the role of Nizhny Novgorod as a guard post was lost, and it turned into one of the largest trading centers through which the Russian state traded with the East. Every year, the famous Makaryev Fair was held in the vicinity of the city.
During the Time of Troubles, a militia was formed here under the leadership of Minin and Pozharsky, which liberated Moscow from the Polish invaders.
In 1714 Nizhny Novgorod became a provincial city. Since that time, the development of industry began. In addition, the city has become the cultural and scientific center of the country. Such famous people as mechanic I.P. worked here. Kulibin and mathematician N.I. Lobachevsky.
In 1816, a shopping complex in Makariev burned down, a new one was built near Nizhny Novgorod. The new fair has become one of the largest in the world.
In 1929 Nizhny Novgorod became the center of the Nizhny Novgorod region. In 1932, the city was renamed Gorky, in honor of the writer Maxim Gorky, and the region was renamed Gorky. Large industrial enterprises worked in Gorky, which during the Great Patriotic War supplied the Soviet army with defensive equipment. In 1990, the city was again renamed Nizhny Novgorod.
Nizhny Novgorod has preserved many historical and architectural sights. The Kremlin stands in the historical center of the city near Minin Square. For several centuries, the Kremlin was the main fortified point of the eastern borders of the Moscow Kingdom. The current brick Kremlin was built in the early 16th century by order of Tsar Ivan III. Its construction began with the erection of the Ivanovskaya Tower in 1500. Then another 12 towers and a diversion archer were erected. To date, 12 of the 13 towers have survived: Dmitrievskaya, Powder, Georgievskaya, Borisoglebskaya, Belaya, Chasovaya, Ivanovskaya, Severnaya, Taynitskaya, Koromyslova, Nikolskaya, Kladovaya. The Zachatievsky Tower was destroyed by a landslide. The Dmitrievskaya Tower is mentioned in chronicles as early as the end of the 14th century, when the defensive fortifications in Nizhny Novgorod were made of stone. The clock tower was the main guard post of the fortress, which is why it got its name. Also in the 16th century, a clock was installed here, which beat the time every quarter of an hour. The Taynitskaya tower was called so because an underground passage was led from it to the Pochaina River. The yoke tower got its name from the legend that the Tatars killed a girl here who was going for water when she was attacked, she began to defend herself with a yoke and killed several Tatars. The storage tower was used to store various supplies. In the Powder Tower there was a warehouse of gunpowder and military guns. The North Tower was named because of its position relative to the other towers of the Kremlin. The rest of the towers were named after the churches standing next to them. The storage tower was used to store various supplies. In the Powder Tower there was a warehouse of gunpowder and military guns. The North Tower was named because of its position relative to the other towers of the Kremlin. The rest of the towers were named after the churches standing next to them. The storage tower was used to store various supplies. In the Powder Tower there was a warehouse of gunpowder and military guns. The North Tower was named because of its position relative to the other towers of the Kremlin. The rest of the towers were named after the churches standing next to them.
Only one of the churches of the fortress has survived to this day – the Archangel Cathedral. A wooden church was erected on this site in 1221, which was rebuilt in stone in 1227. In 1359 it was overhauled and played the role of a church at the mansions of the Grand Duke. After the Tatar invasion and the Time of Troubles, the church was badly damaged; it was rebuilt only in 1631. Now in the cathedral there is the ashes of Minin, as well as the remains of the princes of the 15th century – Vasily Semenovich Kirdyapa, Ivan Vasilyevich, Vasily Yuryevich and members of their families. Opposite the building of the Archangel Cathedral in 1828, an obelisk to Minin and Pozharsky was erected, and in 1965 an eternal flame was lit here and a memorial complex was opened in honor of the Gorky people who died during the Great Patriotic War. At the end of the 18th century, buildings of government offices appeared on the central square of the Kremlin.