Veracruz, Mexico

According to, Veracruz is a state in Mexico. It borders the states of Tamaulipas to the north, Oaxaca and Chiapas to the south, Tabasco to the southeast, Puebla, Hidalgo and San Luis Potosí to the west and the Gulf of Mexico to the east. The capital is Xalapa. With 6.9 million residents, the state of Veracruz is the third most populous in the country, after the Federal District and the state of Mexico.

Xalapa is both the state capital and the university city. Today, the city is known as one of the most important places for Coffee production in Mexico.

During the pre-Spanish-speaking period, the area that now forms Veracruz was inhabited by four indigenous cultures. Huastecos and Otomíes occupied the north, Totonacas settled in the mid-north, and the Olmecs, one of the oldest cultures in all of America, dominated the south between 1300 and 400 BC. Several important olmeker sites are located along rivers on the coastal plain of Veracruz. They include San Lorenzo (1300-900 BC) and Tres Zapotes (1000-400 BC). In their heyday, these three settlements were probably the most complex ceremonial sites found in Mesoamerica; however, around 400 BC, the peculiarities of Olmeker culture disappeared and the area was replaced by the new Mexican and Mayan civilizations.

Today, the state is famous for its beautiful beaches and its annual carnival, a celebration of music, dance and spectacular parades. Many of the area’s first residents, i.a. The Otomi people, still live in the state. It is the fifth-largest indigenous ethnic group in Mexico, which is spread all over central Mexico from Michoacán to Veracruz.


100 BCE – El Tajínwas founded. From approx. year 600 to approx. in the year 900 the city experienced its heyday, but around the year 1200 the city was abandoned after it had been subjected to a hostile attack. In 1785, El Tajín was officially rediscovered and in 1992 it was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List. The ruined city is today surrounded by jungle and consists of i.a. of pyramids, temples, platforms and blood vessels. Next to the ruins is a small museum, whereby the volador ritual can be experienced. 12th century – The Aztecs invaded the area, and dominated Veracruz in the 15th century.

1518 – The first Spanish conquerors arrive in Veracruz, led by Juan de Grijalva. The expedition also included Bernal Diaz del Castillo, who later became a champion of the rights of the natives.

1519 – On April 22, the coastal city of Veracruz is established by Hernán Cortés. He called the city ” Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz “, referring to the area’s gold and dedicated to the ‘True Cross’, because he landed on the Christian holiday on Good Friday, the day of the crucifixion. It was the second Spanish settlement on the American mainland, but the first to have a coat of arms.

1570 – An African slave named Gaspar Yanga leads an uprising and establishes San Lorenzo de los Negros. In colonial Mexico, this was one of the only colonies for African blacks to gain its independence and freedom through rebellion. After attempts to recapture the slaves and end the revolt in 1606 and 1609, the Spanish authorities decided to negotiate with the community. In return for the freedom of the blacks, Yanga did not agree to invade Spanish societies. In 1630, the settlement established the city of Yanga. In 1871, five decades after Mexican independence, Yanga was designated a ‘national hero of Mexico’ and El Primer Libertador de las Americas. This was largely based on an account by historian Vicente Riva Palacio.

1835-1836 – Texas Revolution was fought from October 2, 1835 and April 21, 1836 between Mexico and the Tejas area (later known as Texas ) in the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Texas belonged to Mexico from 1821 to 1836.

1836 – The Battle of the Alamo is fought between Mexico and rebel forces from Texas in San Antonio, where the former Alamo mission station, which was converted into a fort, was located.

1836 – On April 21, Antonio López de Santa Anna loses the Battle of San Jacinto and is captured the following day. A few days after that, he signed the peace treaty that ended the war between Texas and Mexico, which resulted in the creation of the new independent state, the Republic of Texas. General Santa Anna was often called ‘the man who was Mexico’. The unprincipled adventurer dominated Mexico for 25 years, serving as president 7 times, changing parties and ideologies at will.

1994 – FILM: Some of the scenes for the US film Death Cartels (Clear and gift danger) recorded in Coatepec.

2010 – In September, the small but strong hurricane in category 3, named Karl, caused extensive flooding and damage affecting approx. half a million people. Only 16 died and another 11 disappeared without a trace. 65 municipalities in the state were declared disaster areas. Preliminary damages were estimated at DKK 3.9 billion. dollars.

Veracruz, Mexico