Venezuela. According to
Countryaah.com, violent demonstrations in Caracas and several
other major cities began the new year. The protests were led
by students and were primarily concerned with the
government's savings plans and the increased cost of living.
The protests resumed in February and were now aimed at
negotiations with the International Monetary Fund and budget
In March, President Rafael Caldera implemented a
government reform. The most important change was that
Teodoro Petkoff, leader of the Movimiento al Socialismo
(MAS) coalition party, was appointed Minister of Planning.
In March, the dormant negotiations with the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) resumed. Major budget cuts and an
economic stabilization plan aimed at reducing the budget
deficit from 6.1 to 2% of GDP contributed to Venezuela
getting a $ 3 billion loan from the IMF, Inter-American
Development Bank (IDB), at the end of April. and the World
On May 30, the Supreme Court sentenced former President
Carlos Andrés Pérez to prison for two years and four months
for embezzlement of public funds during his second term
Several Caribbean people inhabited the northernmost part
of the South American continent when Cristóbal Colón
(Columbus) arrived on these coasts in 1498. cumanagotos,
tamaques, maquiritares and arecunas. On the coast, the
indigenous people built their houses on piles of water,
reminding the Spaniards of Venice why they gave the country
the name Venezuela.
During the Spanish colonial period, Venezuela was
organized as the Viceroy of Nueva Granada (Capitanía General
del Virreinato de Nueva Granada). In the 18th century, the
country developed into the most important agricultural
colony - especially because of the production of cocoa. The
bourgeoisie - the Creole aristocracy ("mantuanos") -
controlled this production, which was based on African slave
labor, and these "pardos" made up the large population.
The struggle for independence
In this country, two of the most important leaders of the
Latin American independence movement were born: Francisco de
Miranda and Simón Bolívar. In the capital Caracas, a council
was formed, which on April 19, 1810, initiated the struggle
for independence with Miranda at the head of the rebel army.
His idea was to form a comprehensive American confederation
to be called Colombia, where an Inca was to be crowned
emperor. But even he was captured by the Spaniards in 1811
and died in prison.
Bolívar joined Miranda's independence program, and
initially supported the mantuana bourgeoisie. After
a rapid military offensive in 1812-13, he succeeded in
forming a government in Caracas. But the project of
independence did not aim for major changes in the local
social structures, and was not supported by the broad masses
of predominantly pardos who hated the Creole
landlords. Caudillo José Tomás Boves was obedient to the
Spanish crown and stood at the head of the crowds. In 1814
he succeeded in defeating Bolívar, the slaves gained their
freedom, and land was distributed among the peasants.
The first republic had collapsed, Bolívar went into exile
and contacted Haiti's President Alexandre Sabés Petion, who
supported the independence struggle. When he returned to
Venezuela, he made the popular demands of his, and thus
gained the support of the masses. Together with a number of
important military leaders such as Antonio José de Sucre,
Marińo, José A. Páez and Arismendi, he conducted a series of
victorious offensives in the northern half of the continent
until the formation of Bolivia.
In 1819, the Congress of Angostura decided to form a
Great Colombia by amalgamating the present Equador,
Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. In 1830 shortly before
Bolívar's death, General Páez decided to withdraw Venezuela
from state cooperation and do it independently.
Páez was a great caudillo and for decades constituted the
political center of Venezuela. His successor, Antonio Guzmán
Blanco, introduced a number of reforms. a modernization of
the country. He introduced new production techniques, new
forms of communication and renewed legislation.