Venezuela. Violent demonstrations in Caracas and several other major cities began the new year. The protests were led by students and were primarily concerned with the government’s savings plans and the increased cost of living. The protests resumed in February and were now aimed at negotiations with the International Monetary Fund and budget cuts.
In March, President Rafael Caldera implemented a government reform. The most important change was that Teodoro Petkoff, leader of the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) coalition party, was appointed Minister of Planning. In March, the dormant negotiations with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) resumed. Major budget cuts and an economic stabilization plan aimed at reducing the budget deficit from 6.1 to 2% of GDP contributed to Venezuela getting a $ 3 billion loan from the IMF, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), at the end of April. and the World Bank.
- ABBREVIATIONFINDER.ORG: What does VZ stand for? In the field of geography, this two letter acronym means Venezuela. Check this to see its other meanings in English and other 35 languages.
On May 30, the Supreme Court sentenced former President Carlos Andrés Pérez to prison for two years and four months for embezzlement of public funds during his second term (1989–93).
Several Caribbean people inhabited the northernmost part of the South American continent when Cristóbal Colón (Columbus) arrived on these coasts in 1498. cumanagotos, tamaques, maquiritares and arecunas. On the coast, the indigenous people built their houses on piles of water, reminding the Spaniards of Venice why they gave the country the name Venezuela.
During the Spanish colonial period, Venezuela was organized as the Viceroy of Nueva Granada (Capitanía General del Virreinato de Nueva Granada). In the 18th century, the country developed into the most important agricultural colony – especially because of the production of cocoa. The bourgeoisie – the Creole aristocracy (“mantuanos”) – controlled this production, which was based on African slave labor, and these “pardos” made up the large population.
The struggle for independence
In this country, two of the most important leaders of the Latin American independence movement were born: Francisco de Miranda and Simón Bolívar. In the capital Caracas, a council was formed, which on April 19, 1810, initiated the struggle for independence with Miranda at the head of the rebel army. His idea was to form a comprehensive American confederation to be called Colombia, where an Inca was to be crowned emperor. But even he was captured by the Spaniards in 1811 and died in prison.
Bolívar joined Miranda’s independence program, and initially supported the mantuana bourgeoisie. After a rapid military offensive in 1812-13, he succeeded in forming a government in Caracas. But the project of independence did not aim for major changes in the local social structures, and was not supported by the broad masses of predominantly pardos who hated the Creole landlords. Caudillo José Tomás Boves was obedient to the Spanish crown and stood at the head of the crowds. In 1814 he succeeded in defeating Bolívar, the slaves gained their freedom, and land was distributed among the peasants.
The first republic had collapsed, Bolívar went into exile and contacted Haiti’s President Alexandre Sabés Petion, who supported the independence struggle. When he returned to Venezuela, he made the popular demands of his, and thus gained the support of the masses. Together with a number of important military leaders such as Antonio José de Sucre, Mariño, José A. Páez and Arismendi, he conducted a series of victorious offensives in the northern half of the continent until the formation of Bolivia.
In 1819, the Congress of Angostura decided to form a Great Colombia by amalgamating the present Equador, Colombia, Venezuela and Panama. In 1830 shortly before Bolívar’s death, General Páez decided to withdraw Venezuela from state cooperation and do it independently.
Páez was a great caudillo and for decades constituted the political center of Venezuela. His successor, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, introduced a number of reforms. a modernization of the country. He introduced new production techniques, new forms of communication and renewed legislation.
Although Venezuela is located in the middle of the tropical climate zone, depending on the altitude, the topography and the direction and intensity of the prevailing winds, you can find all types of climates from tropical humid to alpine climates. Seasonal fluctuations differ less in temperature than in the different amounts of precipitation. Most of the country has the rainy season from May to October.
The country is divided into four temperature zones, most of which can be traced back to the respective altitude: In the tropical zone (below 800 m), the average annual temperature is between 26 ° C and 28 ° C. The temperate zone with average temperatures of 12 ° C to 25 ° C extends between 800 and 2000 m above sea level. Most of Venezuela’s cities are located here, including the capital Caracas. Colder conditions with temperatures of 9 ° C to 11 ° C are found in the cool zone between 2000 and 3000 m. Pasture land and permanent snow fields characterize the landscape in the high mountains (from 3,000 m above sea level). The annual average temperatures here are below 8 ° C.
Annual rainfall ranges from 430 mm in the semi-arid lowlands and plains in the western part of the Caribbean coast to around 1000 mm in the Orinoco Triangle. In the mountain regions, the amount of precipitation fluctuates considerably, because less rain falls in the depressions than on the steep walls, which are exposed to the northeast winds. In Caracas falls from June to August with 750 mm half of the annual precipitation there.
The country’s mean maximum temperature is between 30 ° C and 31 ° C. However, the temperature in individual places can deviate from this average value, so it is not uncommon for maximum temperatures of around 40 ° C. The mean minimum temperature is between 7 ° C and 12 ° C, depending on the month, although it hardly falls below 10 ° C from April to November. From July to January it rains for almost half a month, in the other months there are only one to seven rainy days per month.
According to Countryaah.com, the population of Venezuela in 1996 was 21,930,973, ranking number 41 in the world. The population growth rate was 2.240% yearly, and the population density was 24.8638 people per km2.