Uzbekistan. During the year, a rapprochement between
Uzbekistan and the United States could be noticed.
Countryaah.com, Uzbekistan has supported US sanctions against Iran, which
the US has accused of being linked to international
terrorism. At a meeting of the Islamic Association Economic
Co-operation Organization (ECO) in the Turkmen capital of
Ashgabat, the Uzbek men threatened to leave the
organization, citing Iran's attempts to police it.
The government's economic program for 1996 aimed to limit
inflation to 2% per month - inflation in 1995 was 74% - and
to stabilize the domestic currency. In November, the right
for foreign businessmen in the country to be paid for their
goods in convertible currency was revoked, with retroactive
effect. This was to the effect that the black exchange rate
on the US dollar tripled.
In 1924, the Soviet government reorganized the borders of
Central Asia on the basis of ethnic criteria. the Socialist
Soviet Republic of Uzbekistan. In May 1925, the Republic was
formally incorporated into the Soviet Union. Until 1929, the
Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of Tajikistan was part
of Uzbekistan, where it was elevated to an independent
republic. During the Moscow processes in 1937-38, several
Uzbek people were sentenced to death. This included Prime
Minister Fayzullah Khodzhayev and First Secretary of the
Republic Communist Party, Akmal Ikramov. In 1953, both
leaders were rehabilitated.
The socialist reforms carried out in Uzbekistan were
primarily aimed at exploiting the region's agricultural
potential. The state built large canals: Great Fergana,
North Fergana, Tashkent as well as the Kattakurgan
hydroelectric plants across the Zeravshan River and
Akhangaran, both of which had modern irrigation systems.
During the period 1956-83 Sharaf Rashidov was the first
secretary of the Communist Party and the head of government,
and under him the economic potential of the republic
developed - on the basis of cotton cultivation. The Republic
became the Soviet's main supplier of cotton and was the
world's third largest producer.
Throughout the 1940s the population increased - among
other things. through the immigration of Kurds and Turks
from the Caucasus. The ethnic and political stability of the
republic lasted until the 1980s. With the deployment of Yuri
Andropov as Secretary General of the Soviet Communist Party
in 1985, the leadership of the party in Uzbekistan was also
replaced. The new party's first secretary, Inamjon
Ousmankhodjaev, could subsequently reveal that the cotton
harvest figures had been falsified by his predecessor.
The so-called "Uzbek corruption case" was the biggest
scandal in the Soviet Union until then. It led to arrests,
lawsuits against 4,000 officials and purges within the
party, but without fundamentally changing conditions.
In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachov came to power. The changes he
initiated, the deterioration of the economic situation and
the weakening of the central power led to an increasing
number of ethnic and religious conflicts in Uzbekistan. The
Uzbek are predominantly Sunni Muslims and opposed the
party's anti-religious stance.
The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan where the superpower
fought against other Sunni Muslims only worsened the
situation. All of this helped to create a hostile climate in
the Republic against Moscow and the Russian minority in the
Republic. This was the background of the June 1989 conflict
in the Fergana region and the clashes in Namangan in
In August 1991, Uzbekistan's Supreme Soviet (Parliament)
passed the Law of Independence, and on December 12, the
Uzbek delegation in Alma Ata signed the Protocol on the
Formation of the State Society of Independent States (CIS) -
the successor to the dissolved Soviet Union. On the 29th of
the month, a referendum and presidential elections were held
in Uzbekistan. A majority voted for independence and the
Communist Party's former first secretary, Islam Karimov, was
elected the new country's first president.