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Yearbook 1996

Russian Federation. According to, the war in Chechnya entered its second year in 1996. Chechen rebels continued to attack targets outside their own republic. More than 2,000 people were taken hostage in the town of Kizljar in Dagestan. The rebels were eventually allowed to leave the city with some of the hostages, but were stopped at the village of Pervomajskoye by Russian forces, who stormed the village after violent shootings. At least 150 people were killed. A few days after the hostage crisis, the Russian Federation was elected 39th member state of the Council of Europe; Previously, the war in Chechnya had been regarded as the greatest obstacle to membership.

1996 RussiaThe war in Chechnya was one of the major obstacles for Boris Yeltsin to renew his presidency at the June elections. However, the propagandist peace initiatives he took for this reason proved completely ineffective on the battlefield. The Rebels made several successful offensives in the capital Grozny. A severe setback for the Caucasian Mountain Republic was that April rebel President Dzjochar Dudayev was killed in a Russian grenade attack. Dudayev was a symbol of the Chechen independence movement, according to Yeltsin, a person who should be shot as a dog. He was succeeded by author Zelimchan Jandarbyev.

1996 Russia

Opinion polls before the presidential election showed that crucial issues were the declining standard of living and the war in Chechnya. In the first round, Yeltsin and the ideologically coercive communist Gennady Ziuganov won. In third place came the popular general Aleksandr Lebed. In this situation, Lebed was quickly acquired by Yeltsin, and thus in principle the second and decisive election round was decided. Yeltsin won - and disappeared. He was overworked, it was called in the beginning. When the absence became troublesome, the recognition came: Yeltsin is heartbroken and must be operated on. By then, Lebed, who had been appointed security adviser in June, had not only negotiated peace in Chechnya but also began to act increasingly self-reliant. This led Yeltsin to dismiss him without warning,

Yeltsin's operation, November 5, took seven hours; it was performed by a 12-man team of Russian surgeons, but with American and German specialists as consultants. It attracted tremendous attention within and outside the Russian Federation, even though it was carried out at the same time as the United States elected president. The Russian Orthodox Patriarch had urged believers to pray for the President's health. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin had been given the head of state's functions, including "the black bag" with the button that approves nuclear weapons attacks.

The economic situation of the Russian Federation has been chaotic during the year: privatization has stalled, the budget deficit has run away, tax collection has slowed down, investment willingness has slowed down and the black economy has flourished; the army is still frustrated, workers and officials are struggling to get their wages. Yeltsin, who returned from convalescence in December, has been actively fighting for reforms in many different areas, fighting corruption and mafia, and stimulating the economy. The Russian Federation will be on the operating table for a long time to come.

And the Soviet man, Homo sovieticus, is not yet dead. In February, the Russian Parliament made a decision that the dissolution of the Soviet Union no longer applies. And hundreds of thousands of people around the Russian Federation took part in various political events on Revolution Day, November 7, in memory of Lenin's coup d'谷tat 79 years earlier. According to sociological studies, however, half of the Russians believe that the day of revolution should be a normal working day and not a holiday.

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