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Romania

Yearbook 1996

Romania. At the November presidential election, the Christian Democratic Party candidate Emil Constantinescu won. It was the second round of elections, and Constantinescu got 54.4% of the vote against incumbent president, Communist Ion Iliescu, who got 45.6%. According to Countryaah.com, the turnout was around 76%. Constantinescu appointed Prime Minister Constantincu during the summer, the mayor of Bucharest, Victor Ciorbea. Ciorbea is a lawyer and has been the leader of Romania's first free trade union.

In early February, 160,000 miners went on a 24-hour strike in protest of a new pension law. The workers demanded guarantees for retirement after 20 years of underground work.

The country's first nuclear power plant in Cernavoda east of Bucharest was inaugurated in April. The plant's pressurized water reactors are a Canadian heavy water type construction. This means that natural uranium can be used and avoids expensive enrichment. Romania has its own uranium deposits.

Romania signed a friendship treaty with Hungary in the Romanian city of Timişoara on September 16.

1996 Romania

1859 Romania is formed

In 1859 the princes elected Alexandru Ion Cuza as king, and he was recognized by the great powers and the sultan in 1861. With the constitution of 1863, a two-chamber parliament and universal suffrage were introduced. However, property owners gained greater electoral power. That same year, the king carried out land reform and exempted the peasants from the hovering work, which earned him the enmity of the feudal nobility. The king also got the church on its neck after confiscating its lands, and he set out with the peasants dissatisfied with the scope of land reform. He abdicated in 1866.

In 1877, the Russo-Turkish War broke out again. Russia rejected an alliance with Romania and threatened to invade the country. In April, Romania allowed Russian troops to pass through the country, and in May it declared Turkey war. The Romanians contributed to the subsequent Russian victory, but were not invited to the peace conference. The Berlin Treaty of 1878 respected Romanian sovereignty, but did not give it back to Besarabia. By contrast, it got Dobruja - a small area in the Danube Delta.

When the Balkan Wars broke out in 1912, there were latent tensions between Romania and its neighboring countries due to border issues. After the first battles, Bucharest demanded a change in the borders of Dobruja. At Skt. The Petersburg Conference in 1913, Bulgaria had to deliver Silistra to Romania. During the Second Balkan War, Bucharest conquered new territories. The Bucharest Treaty gave it the area south of Dobruja. At the outbreak of World War I, Romania wavered between Besarabia and Transylvania, but ultimately took a stand in favor of the latter.

World War 1

In 1916, the country allied with Britain, France, Russia and Italy and declared war on Austria-Hungary. But Austria conquered Bucharest and King Ferdinand, the government and the army had to seek the protection of the Russian czar in Moldova. When the central powers were defeated, Romania could unite Transylvania, Besarabia, Bucovina and Banato.

Immediately after the war, major land reform was implemented - partly for fear of the Russian revolution spreading to Romania. There had previously been many major peasant revolts in Romania. The largest was no longer left than in 1907, when 10,000 peasants were killed when the army was deployed.

The industrialization of Romania began in the late 1800s, but progressed slowly. In the 1920s, the "liberal" party - really conservative - had the power. It advocated a forced industrialization with special rights to Romanian capital. Foreign capital was already dominating in several important industries - among other things. oil. The form of government was formally bourgeois-democratic, but in practice it was semi-dictatorial, with an undemocratic election law, much electoral fraud, frequent use of censorship and state of emergency, political imprisonment, ban on the Communist Party - in 1924 - and so on.

After major peasant demonstrations, the national peasant party came to power in 1928. The party was not a purely peasant party, but represented prosperous peasants and parts of urban citizenship - especially in Transylvania. The party opened up to foreign capital, while at the same time ruling more democratically than was the practice in Romania during the interwar period. The state of emergency was abolished, so was the press censorship and the administration was decentralized.

The economic world crisis around 1930 hit Romania hard, among other things. because export prices - especially on agricultural products - fell much more sharply than import prices on finished goods. In this way, a poor country like Romania helped ease the crisis for the more prosperous industrialized countries. The political situation in Romania became more unstable, with party splits and growing fascist movements, of which «Jerngarden» was the most important.

In 1938, King Carol II conducted a scam on a new corporatist constitution and then initiated a personal dictatorship. In November he met with Hitler and when he returned home the leader of the Jerngarden and 13 others of its leaders were executed. The communists were also persecuted. Economically, the country became more and more dependent on Germany. To the other superpowers, Carol claimed that he was being pressured by Hitler, and he obtained a guarantee from France and England that they would respect the integrity of the country. When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, the king not only ran away from the mutual defense agreement Romania had signed with Poland, but also arrested the Poles who later tried to flee through Romania.

In the summer of 1940, Romania had to relinquish Besarabia to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary and Dobruja to Bulgaria. The king was forced to abdicate and General Ion Antonescu assumed power in collaboration with Jerngarden.

 

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