Congo. According to
Countryaah.com, troops loyal to former President Denis Sassou-Nguesso in July invaded the city of Mossaka in the
northeastern part of the country. The government forces did
not intervene to avoid carnage.
In June, the International Monetary Fund granted a $ 100
million loan to support the government's reform program.
The newly appointed Prime Minister Charles David Ganao
formed a coalition government in September with ministers
from three parties.
On November 16, 1999, a ceasefire was signed between
N'Guesso and the rebels. This agreement was further extended
on December 29 after mediation by Gabon's president, Omar
Bongo. In accordance with the agreement, N'Guesso released
prisoners and in January 2000, thousands of rebels were
disarmed. In February, Kolelas reaffirmed his recognition of
N'Guesso as president.
In December 2001, 11 cases of infection with the highly
dangerous Ebola virus were detected, despite extensive
sanitary checks at border crossings. It is believed that an
infected woman came across the border from Gabon. A total of
94 persons who had been in contact with the infected were
isolated in the health system.
With an 80% turnout in February 2002, the first
presidential election was held after the end of the civil
war. The election was won by the incumbent president with
74.7% of the vote. This result made the second round of
elections unnecessary. Although the election was conducted
peacefully, it was characteristic that the main candidates
of the opposition conducted their election campaign from
exile, or at the last moment withdrew their candidacy
claiming that the election was a pure carnival. A few days
after the election, fighting broke out in the Pool area
between government forces and the so-called Ninja militia.
The dispute was resolved when a peace treaty was signed in
March 2003 giving the militia amnesty and 2,300 rebels
dropped the weapons. On August 30, Parliament voted
unanimously to grant the rebels amnesty.
In 2003-04, the United Nations continued its relief
programs, concentrated on the refugee camps, and the
reduction of the AIDS epidemic and poverty.
New cases of Ebola killed 136 people in 2003.
Since 2000, oil production has steadily declined. That
also applied to the first 6 months of 2004. The civil war of
the 1990s and political chaos played an important role in
this decline, as both exploration and foreign investment had
stalled. Acc. World Bank data show oil production accounts
for 67% of the country's GDP, 78% of government revenue and
95% of exports. Due. the many damage to the infrastructure -
bridges, roads, etc. - during the civil war, the country's
dependence on oil has grown.
In April 2005, the government reported that a group of
officers arrested in January for weapons theft had been
preparing for a coup. After eight years in exile, in October
2005, Kolelas returned to the Congo to attend the funeral of
his wife. The former prime minister sentenced to death for
war crimes was granted amnesty in November.
In January 2006, the Congo became the chair of the
The Guerilla Movement, the National Committee for
Resistance, which had participated in several civil wars in
1998-2002, decided in 2006 to enter political life under the
name of the Republican National Council. The leader of the
new party, Frédéric Bintsangou, stated that he supported the
disarmament plans throughout the country.
President Nguesso's international reputation suffered
significant damage in 2007 when a French court decided to
reopen the investigation into the involvement of the
Congolese government in the disappearance of 353 Congolese
refugees in 1999.
Most of the opposition was boycotted by the July 2009
presidential election, so Nguesso got 78.6% of the vote and
could begin his third term in the presidential post in
In August 2010, the country celebrated its 50th
anniversary of independence from France. The president
declared that the country still had a long way to go before
it could fully realize the dream of independence: "Our
country cannot become fully independent until our people are
freed from the yoke of poverty".
Many pygmies in Congo are living in miserable conditions,
and UNICEF and human rights activities have criticized the
situation for many years. On December 30, 2010, the
Congolese Parliament passed a law protecting the rights of
indigenous peoples. It was the first law of its kind on the
continent, and marked an important step forward for Africa's
ethnic minority groups.
About 300 were killed, 2,000 wounded and 20,000 homeless
when one of the Army’s ammunition depots in March 2012 burst
into the air in Brazzaville.
The July/August 2012 parliamentary elections were won by
the ruling Labor Party PCT, which got 89 out of Parliament's
139 seats - an increase of 43. The remaining 50 seats were
distributed to 12 small parties and 12 independent
candidates. Opposition parties and several human rights
organizations pointed out that the turnout was only about