Nicaragua. According to
Countryaah.com, Kravall police stormed the Foreign Ministry in
Managua in February, where students had entrenched
themselves with hostage staff. Occupants demanded increased
investment in higher education.
Pope John Paul II's visit that month was dramatic, with
massive student demonstrations and blast attacks on a
In May, former President Daniel Ortega was nominated by
his party, the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN),
as a candidate in the presidential election.
Arnoldo Aleman, Liberal Alliance candidate, won the
presidential election in October with 51% of the vote
against Ortega's 37.7%. Aleman is a populist right-wing
politician and is characterized by his opponents as
supporters of the overthrown dictator Somoza.
Ortega accused the opponent of cheating, and it emerged
that doubts had existed before the election authorities
finally confirmed the result.
Aleman presented a government made up of representatives
from various parties, a government that will take office on
January 10, 1997.
1981-90 Counterrevolution funded by the United States
In 1981, US President-elect Ronald Reagan openly declared
that he had set himself the goal of crushing the Sandinists.
Between April and July 1982, Deputy Interior Minister Edén
Pastora deserted and 2,500 Somocist national guardians
invaded Nicaragua from Honduras - with support from the
United States. A war of persecution against Nicaragua and
sabotage of the economy were launched, forcing the Sandinist
government to maintain a high level of preparedness, impose
mandatory military service, and restrict any organization
associated with Washington's aggressive political line.
In 1983, President Reagan admitted that there was a
secret CIA operation targeting Nicaragua as well as support
for the counter-revolutionaries operating from Honduran
territory and which he characterized as "freedom fighters."
Despite his slim majority in Congress and the disapproval of
the people, the president continued with his plans.
The governments of Colombia, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela
were concerned about the seriousness of the situation and
the risk of a war that would inevitably spread to all of
Central America. They therefore initiated efforts to devise
a negotiated solution to the conflict. The initiative became
known as the Contadora Group, and foreign ministers
initiated peace talks, which received widespread diplomatic
support and prevented a North American invasion that seemed
Despite the US-backed US-backed actions, Nicaragua held
elections in November 1984, in which not only the FSLN but
also 6 opposition parties from the right and left wing
participated. Out of the 1.5 million eligible voters, 82%
voted. FSLN received 67% of the votes cast. The opposition
was divided. Four parties had gone into Coordinadora
Democrática (Democratic Coordination), which nominated
Arturo Cruz as presidential candidate, but ultimately
decided not to take part in the election and instead tried
to discredit the internationally monitored election process.
In the same month, Reagan was re-elected President of the
United States, and in April 1985, the superpower declared
the trade blockade of Nicaragua and the freezing of all its
Through 1986, Parliament debated the drafting of a new
constitution, which came into force in January 1987.
Establishing a presidential system, a 6-year term, direct
presidential elections and proportional parliamentary
In 1987, the Central American Presidents initiated their
own peace process with the participation of the UN and the
OAS following a summit in Esquipulas, Guatemala. The main
points of the Esquipulas agreement were a halt to all
foreign support to the armed opposition groups, internal
dialogue in each of the countries, the Catholic Church as a
mediator, and amnesty to those who abandoned the weapons
with a guarantee of opportunity for political life.
In Nicaragua, a National Reconciliation Commission was
formed and "Contra" leader Fernando Chamorro returned to the
country, dropped his weapons and accepted the amnesty. The
press censorship was raised and Violeta de Chamorro's daily
newspaper "La Prensa" was again allowed to be published. On
October 7, the government launched a unilateral ceasefire in
several zones of the country, despite the fact that the
"counterparts" leaders declared that they would continue the