Nepal. According to
Countryaah.com, Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba made major
changes to the coalition government during the year.
In June, one government-appointed committee accused 175
business companies and banks of contributing to a $ 36
million toll on fake import invoices, which had caused major
losses to the Nepalese state. In September, Parliament
approved a cooperation agreement with India, which was
opposed by the Left Opposition, on the extraction of
hydropower from the Mahakali river. In August, the
Government of India admitted that Nepal had to use a 60 km
long road through northeast India for transport to ports in
According to figures from the World Bank, the country was
the world's 8th poorest. Annual income per year In 1995, the
population was $ 180, the infant mortality rate reached 10%,
and 71% of the population lived below the poverty line.
Living conditions in the capital of Kathmandu and in the
province were very different. While the life expectancy of
the capital was 71 years, it was out in the countryside 34
When it was not possible to obtain a parliamentary
majority for its politics, in September 1995, the communist
prime minister left the post to the Congress party leader,
Sher Bahadur Deuba.
In early 1996, guerrilla groups calling themselves
Maoists began to take action to "eradicate feudalism." In
its 1997 report, Amnesty International condemned the abuses
- predominantly by government forces - in their armed
clashes with the guerrillas.
Bahadur Deuba resigned from the Prime Minister's post in
March 1997. He was replaced by Lokendra Bahadur Chand, who
had the backing of a coalition comprising of the Monarchist
Nepal's Sadbhavana Party and the United Communist Party. In
October, he was replaced by Surya Bahadur Thapa, who had the
support of a fragile coalition, similar to the one that had
appointed his predecessor. In April 1998, the Congress Party
withdrew its support. It forced him to step down and he was
replaced by Koirala.
In January 1999, King Birendra dissolved the parliament
at the invitation of Koirala and printed a new election for
May. The Prime Minister declared that the new government
would be responsible for the proper conduct of the elections
and it would not make any more important decisions until the
new parliament was in place.
After two electoral rounds in May, Krishna Prasad
Bhattarai of the Congress party was appointed new prime
minister - as the head of the country's first one-party
government in 4 years. Yet, from the outset, Bhattarai was
challenged internally in his party, where he was accused of
favoring those who supported him directly.
The pressure from members of the Congress party led
Bhattarai to resign as prime minister in March 2000. The
king now appointed Koirala as new prime minister. When he
took over the post for the third time, he declared that the
government's main goal would be to end the Maoist insurgency
in the country, improve its security, fight corruption and
implement reforms in the state administration.
On June 1, 2001, King Birendra, Queen Aishwarya and other
members of the royal family were killed by shots fired by
the heir to the throne, the 29-year-old Prince Dipendra, who
was drunk and subsequently tried to take his own life but
went into a coma. The government appointed Dipendra (the
killer) as king of Nepal and the brother of the dead king,
Prince Gyanendra as acting regent. On June 4, Dipendra died
and Gyanendra was crowned king. The people were walking in
the street in protest of not being properly informed about
the events and circumstances.
Koirala left the post of prime minister as a result of
the rising violence between Maoist rebels and security
forces. He was followed in July by the post of Sher Bahadur
Deuba, who declared a ceasefire. In the ensuing
negotiations, the Maoists compiled a list of 31
requirements, including the repeal of the 1990 Constitution,
the formation of a transitional government and the election
of a constitutional assembly to draft a new constitution,
abolish the monarchy and declare Nepal a republic. The
government rejected the claims and the violence escalated
again. The king declared "state of emergency" in November
and characterized the rebels as "terrorists".