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1996 Liechtenstein

According to, excavations, the area that today constitutes Liechtenstein - between Austria and Switzerland - has been inhabited since Neolithic times. Around 800 BCE it was inhabited by the heroes who remained there until the Romans in the year 15 BCE entered. Excavations in Schaanwald and Nendeln have revealed that a Roman road intersects the country from north to south. The Roman fortifications in Schaan are of special interest because they reveal a work that was intended to protect the road south from German invasions.

In the 4th century, Christianity invaded the province with the missionary San Lucio, honored throughout the region. Later, Germans from the north gradually invaded the country, eliminating the Roman influence. Later the area passed to German duchies and later to the lords Vaduz and Schellenberg. They were ruled by four families: the dukes of Werdenberg-Vaduz, the barons of Brandis, the dukes of Sulz and the dukes of Hohenems. Prince Johann Adam de Liechtenstein - founder of the present duchy - bought the manor of Schellenberg in 1699 and in 1712 the duchy of Vaduz. By succession, these gentlemen's seats were attached to Germany, and the Duke therefore immediately took a seat in the German Empire's prince's council.

Yet, on January 23, 1719, the duke's formal birthday is counted. On that day, the Emperor of Germany, Charles VI, transformed the Duchy of Liechtenstein into the two gentlemen's seats Vaduz and Schellenberg in favor of his faith under Anton Florian de Liechtenstein.

In 1806, Liechtenstein of Napoleon was included in the Renana Confederation, a league of 16 states affiliated with the German Empire. Napoleon guaranteed their independence as states against recognizing him as their protector. In this way, Liechtenstein achieved its sovereignty.

At the Vienna Congress in 1815, the duchy was incorporated into the German confederation. When it was dissolved in 1866, at the same time the last legal relations with Germany were dissolved. Since 1868, the country has no military. In the period 1852-1919 a customs agreement existed between the duchy and the double monarchy of Austria-Hungary.

During Johann's (1858-1929) reign, the country saw significant progress in all areas. The country's first constitution from 1862 paved the way for its modernization, and in 1921 was replaced by a new democratic-liberal constitution that is still in force. During Johann's reign, the focus was on Switzerland. In 1923 the customs agreement between the two countries was concluded and the following year the Swiss franc became the country's currency.

Prince Franz Josef II became the first Duke to permanently relinquish his residence to Liechtenstein. After 51 years as head of state, he died on November 13, 1989 and was replaced at the post by his son, Hans-Adam II.

Liechtenstein first slowly integrated itself into the rest of Europe. It was not until 1978 that it was included in the Council of Europe, in 1990 in the UN, in EFTA in 1991 and in the European Economic Zone in 1995.

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