El Salvador. According to
Countryaah.com, the leader of the Alianza Republicana
Nacionalista (ARENA) government party, Juan José Domenech,
resigned from his post in September when he was accused of
being involved in drug crime.
A bill to reintroduce the death penalty was approved in
Parliament in October. The proposal must also be approved at
the next parliamentary session, which begins in May 1997, to
take effect. The death penalty, which has been abolished
since 1983, was considered necessary as a weapon against the
increasing crime rate.
In the 1987-1989 period, Duarte, with the assistance of
the United States, sought to find a negotiated solution to
the conflict, but internal disagreements, as well as
opposition from the right wing and the army, prevented this.
In October, elections were boycotted by factions within
the opposition movement, but in which the civilian sector of
the FDR - the Social Democrats and the Christian-Social -
participated; presidential candidate was Guillermo Ungo.
ARENA's candidate, Alfredo Cristiani, became new president.
In November 1989, the FMLN again launched a major
offensive, which this time managed to occupy several
neighborhoods in the capital. The government again responded
with heavy bombardment of densely populated areas of the
capital. 6 Jesuits, i.a. the rector of the University of
Central America, Ignacio Ellacuría, was subjected to torture
and executed by heavily armed soldiers. The world community,
and especially the Catholic Church, strongly condemned the
events and North American aid came into danger.
According to information from the Salvadoran Human Rights
Commission, CDHES, it was especially the women who were
subjected to regime reprisals, especially the female
students and the professionally active women. The
organizations defending human rights, led by mothers, wives,
daughters and family members of the thousands of victims of
the abuses and professional organization, UNTS, challenged
the army and regime over 12 long years with charges of the
constant and systematic violations of human rights.
The parliamentary and municipal elections, on March 10,
1991, reflected the new climate of negotiation: For the
first time in 10 years, the FMLN did not call for a boycott
and simultaneously decreed a 3-day unilateral ceasefire. In
spite of this, more than half of the electoral corps chose
not to take part in the elections, ashamed by the death
patrols' assaults. The ruling party achieved 43 of
Parliament's 84 seats. On March 12, peace was broken again
and the fighting continued.
On April 4, 1991, members of Cristiani's government and
representatives of the FMLN began a round of negotiations in
Mexico seeking to establish a ceasefire. 10,000 protesters
from 70 social organizations, gathered in the Comité
Permanente del Debate Nacional, CPDN, demanded the
introduction of constitutional reform at a demonstration on
April 19; The demonstration took place two weeks before the
expiry of the parliamentary mandate, which was set by FMLN
as final for the signing of a peace agreement.
Following various approaches, on April 27,
representatives of the government and the FMLN succeeded in
signing the peace agreement, the so-called «Mexico
Agreement». set restrictions on the Army’s control over
national defense. At the same time, the creation of
paramilitary groups was banned and an amendment to Article
83 of the Constitution was agreed, in order to establish
that sovereignty "comes from the people and from which
political power is based." Another agreement was reached in
June in New York, according to. which the government
undertook to dissolve the National Guard and the Tax Police
and, as a substitute, establish Policia Civil with the
participation of members of the FMLN.