China. According to
Countryaah.com, China continued his economic progress, but did not
become a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in
1996. Prime Minister Li Peng said at the National People's
Congress in March that the fight against inflation is now
most important and that GDP should increase no more than 8%
annually over the next five years - up from 10-12% in the
previous decade. However, fundamental problems such as
widening wealth gaps between cities and countryside, coastal
provinces and inland and the favored and disadvantaged of
the market reforms remained, however.
Outwardly, the country marked its superpower position in
several ways. Prior to the March presidential election in
Taiwan, for China just a breakaway province, Chinese military
began extensive naval and robotic exercises near the island.
The force display, a reminder that Taiwanese independence is
excluded, caused great concern in the region and prompted
the United States to alert large fleet units to the area.
Four months later, on July 29, China blasted a nuclear charge
just before the Geneva Prohibition on Prohibition of Such
Testing (CTBT) was resumed. Several countries complained,
but China said this 45th nuclear test was the last before the
voluntary halt that the country would now observe (a test
had also been conducted on June 8).
Relations with the United States commuted between frost
and thaw. After the Taiwan crisis, the two major powers in
June were close to a trade war. The United States threatened
with sanctions if the Beijing government did not stop piracy
of foreign films, records, computer programs, etc., and
announced tangible countermeasures. However, the parties
agreed on June 17, and the battle was blown off. At the APEC
Summit in Manila in November, then-presidents Bill Clinton
and Jiang Zemin agreed to exchange state visits within two
Earlier in the spring, the China and Russian Federation had
strengthened their relations during a visit to Beijing by
President Boris Yeltsin and, among other things, promised to
establish a "hot line" Moscow-Beijing.
The outside world again protested against China's disregard
for UN human rights. Amnesty International feared the death
penalty following summary "trials" would mean that this
year's executions would be far more than the nearly 2,200
executed in 1995. The sentence of eleven years in prison
against 27-year-old Democratic campaigner Wang Dan October
30 - just before Prime Minister Göran Persson's Kinaresa -
was widely criticized and increased in Hong Kong unrest
before China's takeover of power in 1997. Other attacks against
the opposition and the numerous executions of criminals were
seen as a result of the campaigns launched by the regime
against corruption and crime, as well as moral aggravation
and "a spiritual society. ".
1921 The Communist Party of China is formed
«4th the May Movement 'had first and foremost shown the
anti-imperialist and revolutionary attitude of the modern
intellectual elite. The Communist Party originated from this
movement. It had been formed when 13 people from different
parts of China met in 1921 in a small house in the French
sector of Shanghai to conduct the first congress of the
Communist Party of China (CCP).
The party quickly received support from Chinese who
returned from Europe and were inspired by the communist
ideas. This included Chou En-lai and Li Li-san, who returned
from France and Chu Te from Germany. The new industrial
working class had also shown increased willingness to fight.
In the period 1918-1926 alone there were over 1000 strikes.
The peasants were again set in motion. The Russian
Revolution was also a mighty impetus. The new Soviet regime
had declared that it was renouncing the special rights that
Zarist Russia had squeezed out of ancient China. It was
therefore natural that China sought closer cooperation with
the Soviet Union.
Initially, however, the CCP was weak and was almost
exclusively an intellectual party. In 1923, the party had
just 300 members. The same year, an agreement was signed
between Kuomintang and the CCP on cooperation. The Communist
Party was to continue, but the Communists could enter
Kuomintang as individual members. At this time, intimate
cooperation between Kuomintang and the Soviet Union had also
begun. Communist International's strategy was that the
bourgeois revolution had to be implemented first under
Kuomintang's leadership. The Socialist Revolution should
This line triggered opposition among the communist
leaders. One wing wanted Kuomintang to carry out the
bourgeois revolution alone. Another wing believed that only
the proletariat was capable of carrying out a revolutionary
action. The Communist Party was now becoming a mass party.
It prioritized organizing in the emerging working class and
had significant success. In 1926, the Communists had
influence in 700 unions, representing 1.2 million workers.
In 1927, the CCP had 60,000 members and the union had 3
million members. At the same time, the peasant uprisings
against the landlords increased in strength and strike waves
rolled across the country.
This development caused unrest in the conservative part
of Kuomintang. The CCP's central leadership therefore sought
to curb the revolutionary movement, which Mao disagreed. But
the cautious attitude didn't help. In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek
fought against the communists in Shanghai. 40,000 were
killed. The Communist Party responded to this challenge with
a revolt in Nanchang on August 1, 1927, later in Canton and
with peasant revolts in several central provinces. The break
with Kuomintang was now final.
The Communist Party was now entering its most difficult
period. It was struggling to survive. The communists were
displaced from the cities and had to concentrate on the
villages. A number of Soviet republics were created there.
The first and most important in 1931 in Kiangsi, with Mao
and Chu Te in the lead. It was at this time that Mao's
strategy for basing the revolution on the peasant population
The Communist theory from Marx to Lenin had built on the
industrial workers as the revolutionary force. Most Chinese
communists had also been in favor of this theory, but the
cities of China where the industry was located were now
under Chiang's control. Mao was aware of the revolutionary
opportunity in the Chinese peasant masses. The peasant
revolts in the 19th century had been revolutionary and
anti-Confucian. They sought equality, advocated the
emancipation of women, and a total upheaval of society. Mao
had also done extensive studies himself in the peasant
population. In the Chinese Soviet republics, the communists
were given the opportunity to experiment with land reform,
thus securing the support of the poor and medium-sized