Chad. In March, the government and 13 opposition parties
signed the so-called Franceville agreement. It meant that a
national ceasefire was included and a special group was
appointed with the task of assisting an independent
electoral commission during the upcoming elections.
In April, Chad received a new and approved referendum.
On June 2, the country's first presidential election was
held. As no candidate got the required absolute majority in
the first round, a second round was held on July 3. There,
incumbent President Idriss Déby, who had taken power in Chad
in a 1990 coup, overcame General Abdelkader Wadal Kamougue
by 69 to 31% of the vote.
It was estimated that about 77% of the country's voting
citizens cast their vote. According to
Countryaah.com, Idriss Déby swore presidential
election on August 8. A few days later, he appointed his
prime minister. His election fell on former Prime Minister
Since 1998, the country's most active partisan movement
has been Chad's Democracy and Justice Movement (MDJT) led by
Youssouf Togoimi, the former Defense Minister of Debbie. It
operates mainly in the Tibesti mountain range in the
northern part of the country. In April 1999, the movement
decided to coordinate its actions with two other armed
organizations: the Movement for Democracy and Development,
the MDD and the Democratic Revolutionary Council.
At the presidential election on May 20, 2001, President
Déby was re-elected with 67.4% of the vote. The six
candidates who were beaten pointed to widespread electoral
fraud and demanded the election canceled, but the foreign
election observers declared themselves moderately satisfied
with the election.
In February 2002, the government and leaders of the MDJT
signed a peace agreement to end 3 years of bloody civil war.
As part of the agreement, a ceasefire was to be implemented
immediately, prisoners released and the rebels to be
enlisted in the army and government. At the same time,
Parliament passed a law granting amnesty to the guerrilla
movement, which planned to take part in the elections in
April of that year.
The result of the parliamentary elections was that
President Déby won 110 out of the 155 seats. On March 30,
the Supreme Communications Council announced that the
proliferation of any political debate in private or local
radio stations was prohibited. This type of debate was only
allowed in the state media.
In January 2003, Chad in Gabon signed a peace treaty with
the National Rebellion Movement operating in the country's
southeast. In June, the government was forced to repay $ 7.5
million. US $ to the IMF, after falsifying information about
impending loan repayments. The oil pipeline from Chad to
Cameroon funded by Exxon Mobil, Chevron Texaco, Petronas and
the World Bank was inaugurated in October - despite
criticism from NGOs. Chad's government pledged to invest 80%
of its revenues from oil exports in education, health, the
environment and access to drinking water. It happened after
it had to admit that 4 million. US $ 2000 had been used to
Although the Senegalese government had decided in 2001
that its courts did not have jurisdiction over criminal acts
committed outside Senegal, in late 2003 it decided to detain
Chad's former president Habré until an international
tribunal demands him extradited. Since 2001, a Belgian court
has investigated abuses against thousands of families by the
Habré regime in Chad.