Despite the consolidation of independence policy, the
economic situation was still difficult due to its
geographical location and dependence on foreign countries.
The difficult-to-reach nature of Burundi exacerbates and
overwhelmingly both imports and exports. Population density
is very high and is evenly distributed, with 70% of the
inhabitants concentrated in the north, where the intensive
and unbalanced use of the soil causes erosion that degrades
fertility. Wood, in the form of firewood or coal, is the
primary source of energy in households, but the country's
forests are not sufficient to supply the population. 90% of
agricultural production goes to the domestic market.
Economically, there are high hopes for the rich deposits of
nickel and there is a rich potential for hydropower. Belgian
and North American companies participate in a development
program for the mines in Musongati, where there are also
deposits of cobalt and uranium.
While Bagaza attended a meeting of French-speaking
countries in Quebec in September 1987, he was ousted by a
bloodless coup led by Major Pierre Buyoya.
the confrontations between Hutus and Tutsis in the northern
part of the country in August 1988 resulted in thousands of
deaths, mainly Hutus, whose rebellion against the
land-owning Tutsis was fought by the army, which
predominantly consisted of Tutsis. About 60,000 Hutus fled
to Rwanda. In response to the massacre, the government
appointed the hutu Adrien Sibomana as prime minister and
head of a government in which half the ministers were hutu.
In 1989, most of the refugees returned. The military
government was reconciled with the Catholic Church and its
properties restored. A structural adjustment program was
launched, which involved the privatization of state-owned
enterprises and the formation of a "backward police" to
Burundi, which is among the world's 8 poorest countries,
continued to depend on the most important crop, the coffee,
and the falling world market price. Poverty and population
density are a contributing factor to environmental
degradation. Deforestation is largely due to land conversion
for landless farmers.
Buyoya made a proposal for a new constitution with the
participation of several parties and printed new elections
to hold in 1993. Buyoya, leader of the Party of Unity and
National Progress, whose leaders are mainly Tutsis, lost the
election to Melchior Ndadaye of the opposition party
Burundi's Democracy Front, whose followers are found among
Ndadaye was assassinated 3 months after his deployment,
October 24, 1993, during a failed military coup. Prime
Minister Sylvia Kinigi, who had sought refuge in the French
embassy, was fortunate to have control of the situation.
The leaders of the uprising were arrested or fled to Zaire.
Cyprien Ntaryamira, a hutu of the same political observance
as Ndadaye was appointed by parliament as president.
Although the coup failed, the killing of Ndadaye led to
one of the worst extinction campaigns in Burundi's history.
Supporters of the former president attacked members of the
party for Unity and National Progress, whether they were
Hutus or Tutsis. It resulted in the killing of tens of
thousands of civilians and forced about 700,000 to flee. At
this time, the so-called "extremist, armed militias" were
established, which opposed coexistence with other ethnic
groups, such as the Tutsi from "The Undefeated" or the Hutus
from "Intagohekas" ("Those Who Never Sleep") and the
violence began to spread.
Ntaryamira, along with Rwanda President Juvénal
Habyarimana, was killed by an attack on their plane in
Kigali, the capital of Rwanda, on April 6, 1994. Sylvestre
Ntibantunganya, also hutu, followed the assassinated
president. Violence intensified, especially between the Hutu
militias and the army controlled by Tutsis.
The Unity and National Progress Party stepped out of
government cooperation, forcing President Anatole Kanyenkiko
to resign. His departure enabled the appointment of a Tutsi,
Antoine Nduwayo as president and the Party of Unity and
National Progress re-entered the coalition with the Burundi