Afghanistan. The year began with relative quiet in the
civil war that has been going on since the communist regime
fell in 1992. Negotiations were held on new alliances that
could disrupt the balance of power. According to Countryaah.com, the Islamist Taliban
militia's attempt to create a united front against the
government failed, instead the government signed an
agreement with former Prime Minister Gulbuddin Hekmatyar so
that he could take the post of government in the early
summer. By this time, however, Hekmatyar was considered a
spent force, both politically and militarily, after being
defeated by the Taliban in 1995.
The Taliban had previously failed to capture Kabul, but
in September they quickly advanced east of the capital and
conquered the big city of Jalalabad on the road to Pakistan
and two weeks later Sarobi seven miles from Kabul. After two
days of fierce fighting on the eastern outskirts of Kabul,
when hundreds of people fell, the government and the city's
defenders fled north and the Taliban were able to march into
Kabul and proclaim a new government. A hard Islamic rule was
introduced in the relatively liberal-minded Kabul. Women
were locked out of workplaces and forbidden to stay outdoors
without a full veil, girls were driven home from schools,
men were ordered to carry beards, cinemas were closed and
music was banned, participation in mosques' Friday prayer
became mandatory, corporal punishment was also introduced
for minor crimes. The Taliban went into the UN office and
killed Najibollah, the country's last communist president,
since 1992 protected by the World Organization. His wounded
corpses were hung out for public viewing.
The only country that recognized the Taliban government
was Pakistan, which is believed to have been behind the
Taliban since its inception in 1994. The United States also
indirectly supported the Taliban. In both cases, it was
partly about creating stability for the benefit of their own
economic interests, and partly about getting a
counterbalance to the regime in Shiite Iran in the
conservative Sunni Muslim Taliban. For aid organizations,
however, the work became more difficult. The UN Refugee
Commission was forced to stop operations for some time.
The Taliban's continued march north was halted at the
Hindukush Mountains. Deputy government military leader Ahmed
Shah Massoud reverted to the guerrilla tactics of the Soviet
occupation and was now also assisted by Uzbek militia
general Abdul Rashid Dostam. Together, they drove the
Taliban back a few miles north of Kabul, where the front
line seemed to be locked in for the winter. A new front was
opened in northwestern Afghanistan, where around 50,000
civilians were reported to have moved by the end of
November. The military situation data was contradictory.
Babrak Karmal, the communist leader made president of the
Soviet invasion, died in Moscow in December.
To get out of the hangover, in July 2011, NATO began
withdrawing from 7 Afghan provinces and handing over
responsibility to the Afghan military. In November, the
withdrawal began from another 17. At the same time,
negotiations with the Taliban continued in an attempt to
reach a political solution to the conflict in the country.
To legitimize the negotiations, the UN Security Council in
June decided to end the Taliban-al-Qaeda link. At the same
time, the Taliban were removed from the United Nations'
terror list. But despite negotiations, the war continued. On
September 13, the Taliban attacked the US embassy in Kabul,
NATO's headquarters in the city and several other important
buildings in a coordinated attack.
In its rivalry with Pakistan, India had for several years
sought to enter into closer agreements with Afghanistan. In
October, the two countries signed a strategic partnership
agreement. The Afghan President subsequently stated: “The
signing of the Strategic Partnership Agreement with India is
not aimed at any country. It is not aimed at any other
institution. It aims to enable Afghanistan to benefit from
India's strength. "
Amnesty International cost the war in the country 3021
killed civilians in 2011.
In January 2012, a video was posted on YouTube showing
North American soldiers urinating on killed Afghans. It led
to fierce protests in Afghanistan, and these protests
further intensified in February when it became known that
soldiers on the US Bagram base burned copies of the Koran.
Afghans launched a siege of the base, which was bombarded
with rocks and gasoline bombs. After 5 days of protests, 30
had been killed - including 4 North American soldiers - and
In March, Sergeant Robert Bales left the Panjwai military
base in Kandahar on his own, conducting a personal massacre,
killing 16 Afghan civilians. The Afghan authorities demanded
that he be tried in Afghanistan. The United States quickly
flew him out of the country and presented him to a US
military court, where he was sentenced to life imprisonment
in August 2013. Had the 16 killed been white North Americans
he would have been sentenced to death.
In April, the Los Angeles Times was able to
publish photos of North American soldiers posing with
corpses from killed Afghans. All incidents at the beginning
of this year increased the hatred of the occupying power.
In preparation for the US forces to leave Afghanistan, in
mid-2012, the two countries began drafting a Bilateral
Security Agreement. However, that work stalled when the US
announced in June 2013 that it would begin talks with the
Taliban in Qatar. Karzai did not like the US entering into
direct talks with the Taliban and therefore interrupted
negotiations with the US. Only in the autumn did
negotiations begin again. Afghanistan emphasized that the
United States should not start military operations on its
own after 2014, but should be subject to Afghanistan's
military. With the agreement, 9,800 North American soldiers
and 2,000 NATO soldiers should be allowed to stay in the
country after 2014. That figure should be halved in 2016 and
further reduced in 2017. The United States should then only
be allowed to station soldiers in Kabul and at the Bagram
air base. The superpower's soldiers continue to be subject
to impunity in Afghanistan for the crimes they may have
committed. Although Afghanistan throughout the occupation of
the country has criticized the United States'.